Select the search type
  • Site
  • Web




Acanthochitona sp.
Shannon White (2013)


Fact Sheet



Physical Description



Identification resources

Distribution and Ecology

Local distribution and microhabitat

Biogeographical distribution

Life History & Behaviour

Behaviour and locomotion




Anatomy & Physiology

External Morphology

Internal Anatomy

Evolution & Systematics

Fossil History


Conservation & Threats

References & Links

Reference List

Reference List 

Bode,A 1989, Production of the intertidal chiton Acanthochitona crinite within acommunity of coralline elongate (rhodophyta), Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 55, pp. 37-44.

Bonfitto, A., Angelo, B.D, Evangelisti, F andSabelli, B 2011, The genus Acanthochitona (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in theMediterranean Sea: morphological and molecular data, Scientia Marina, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 171-180.

Buckland-Nicks, J 2008, Fertilization biologyand the evolution of chitons, AmericanMalacological Society, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 97-111.

Buckland-Nicks, J. (1995): Ultrastructure ofsperm and sperm-egg interaction in Aculifera: implications for mollus- canphylogeny. In: Jamieson, B. G. M., Ausió, J. & Justine, J.-L. (eds)Advances in Spermatozoal Phylogeny and Tax- onomy. Mém. Mus. Natl Hist. Nat.(Paris) 166: 129–153.

Encyclopedia of Life, n.d, Acanthochitona, Viewed 11thOctober 2011, available from: <>.

FretterV 1937, The structure and function of the alimentary canal of some species ofPolyplacophora (Mollusca), Transactionsof the Royal Society of Edinburgh, vol. 59, pp. 119-164.

Gladfelter, W.B 1988, Tropical MarineOrganisms and Communities, viewed 15th October 2013, avilable from:<>.

Gowlett-Holmes, K 1998, ‘Family Acanthochitonidae’. in:Beesley, P. L., Ross, G. J. B. & Wells, A. (eds), Mollusca: The SouthernSynthesis. Fauna of Australia. vol. 5, pt A., CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne:188-189.

Gowlett-Holmes, K2001, ‘Polyplacophora’, in Lamprell, K.L., Healy, J.M., Scheltema, A.M.,Gowlett-Holmes, K (eds), ZoologicalCatalogue of Australia Volume 17.2: Mollusca: Aplacophora, Polyplacophora,Scaphopoda, Cephalopoda, CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia. 

Huling, N.C 1991, Activity Patterns andHoming of Acanthopleura gemmate (Blainville, 1825) (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)in the Rocky Intertidal of the Jordan Gulf of Aqaba, The Nautilus, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 16-25.

Ituarte, C., Liuzzi, M.G., Centurion, R 2010,Egg Hull Morphology in two chitons (Polyplacophora) from the South WesternAtlantic Ocean, Malacologia, vol. 53,no. 1, pp. 167-174.

Jones, A.M & Baxter, 1987. Molluscs:Caudofoveata, Solenogastres, Polyplacophora and Scaphopoda. Synopses of theBritish fauna (NS), 37: 1-123.

 Kaas, P., Jones, A.M. & Gowlett-Holmes,K.L 1998, ‘Class Polyplacophora’, pp. 161-194 in Beesley, P., Ross, G. &Wells, A. (eds), Mollusca, the SouthernSynthesis. Fauna of Australia, vol. 5, pt A, Melbourne: CSIRO Publishing,pp.161-194.

Kelaher,B.P and Cole, V.J 2005, Variation in abundance and size-structure ofpopulations of the small chiton, Acanthochitonaretrojecta, Journal of MolluscanStudies, vol. 71, pp. 145-151.

Little, C 1989, Factors governing patterns offoraging activity in littoral marine herbivorous molluscs, The Malacological Society of London, vol. 55, pp. 273-284.

Lorde,J.P 2010, Larval development, metamorphosis and early growth of the gumbootchiton Cryptochiton stelleri(Middendorff, 1847)(Polyplacophora:Mopaliidae) on the Oregon coast, Journal of Molluscan Studies, vol. 77,no. 2, pp. 182-188.

Lyons, W.G 1988, A review of Carribbeanacanthochitonidae (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) with descriptions of six newspecies of Acanthochitona Gray, 1821,American Malacological Bulletin, vol.6, no. 1, pp. 79-114.

Mather, P and Bennett, I, 1993, 'ReefZonation', A Coral Reef Handbook, Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Ltd,pp. 264. 

Okusu,A., Schwabe, E., Eernisse, D.J, Giribet, G 2003, Towards a phylogeny of chitons(Mollusca, Polyplacophora) based on combined analysis of five molecular loci, Organism Diversity and Evolution, vol.3, pp. 281-302.

Pearse, J.S 1979, ‘Polyplacophora’, in Giese,A.C & Pearse, J.S (eds), Reproductionof Marine Invertebrates: Molluscs: Pelecypods and Lesser classes, Vol. 5, NewYork, Academic Press INC.

Ponder,W.F and Lindberg, D.R 2008, ‘Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca’,University of California Press, Los Angeles, California.

Puchalski,S.S, Eernisse, D.J and Johson, C.C 2008, The effect of sampling bias on thefossil record of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora), American Malacological Bulletin, vol. 25, pp. 87-95.

Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S and Barnesm R.D 2004, Invertebrate Zoology: A FunctionalEvolutionary Approach, 7th edn, Brooks/Cole, Cenage Learning,California, USA.

Saito, H 2004, Phylogenetic significant ofthe radula in chitons, with special reference to the Cryptoplacoidea (Mollusca:Polyplacophora), Bollettino Malacologico,Roma, Supplemento, vol. 5, pp. 83-104.

Sampson, L.V 1895, The musculature of Chiton,Journal of Morphology, vol, 11, no,3, pp. 595-628.

Schwabe, E 2010, Illustrated summary ofchiton terminology (Mollusca, Polyplacophora), Spixiana, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 171-194.

Shaw, J.A, Macey, D.J and Brooker, L.R 2008,Radula synthesis by three species of iron mineralizing molluscs: productionrate and elemental demand, Journal of theMarine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 88, no. 3, pp.597-601.

Shaw, J.A., Macey, D.J., Brooker, L.R andClode, P.L 2010, Tooth use and wear in three iron-biomineralizing molluscspecies, Biological Bulletin, vol.218, no. 2, pp. 132-144.

Shaw, J.A., Macey, D.J., Brooker, L.R.,Stockdale, E.J., Saunders, M and Clode, P.L 2009, A chiton stylus canal: anelement delivery pathway for tooth cusp biomineralization, Journal of Morphology, vol. 270, pp. 588-600.

Valentine, J.W 2004, On the Origin of Phyla, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Yonge, C.M 1939, On the mantle cavity and itscontained organs in the Loricata. QuarterlyJournal of Microscopic Science, vol. 81, pp. 367-390. 



(2 objects, created 5/6/2011)

Album: This is a private album that is not visible to anonymous users Great Barrier Reef Invertebrates



Album: 2012

Album: 2011