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You are here:   OldClasses > 2012 > Botryllus leachi | Valerie Chia




Botryllus leachi (Savigny, 1816)
Leach's Sea Daisy 
Valerie Chia (2012)



Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour

Anatomy & Physiology

Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

BRUNETTI, R., BEGHI, L., BRESSAN, M. & MARIN, M. G. 1980. Combined Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Colonies of Botryllus schlosseri and Botfylloides leachi (Ascidiacea) from the Venetian Lagoon. Marine ecology. Progress series (Halstenbek), 2, 303-314.

BURIGHEL, P., BRUNETTI, R. & ZANIOLO, G. 1976. Hibernation of the Colonial Ascidian Botrylloides Leachi (Savigny): Histological Observations. Bolletino di zoologia, 43, 293-301.

CARVER, C. E., MALLET, A. L. & VERCAEMER, B. 2006. Biological synopsis of the colonial tunicates, Botryllus schlosseri and botrylloides violaceus. Canadian manuscript report of fisheries and aquatice sciences no. 2747. Fisheries and oceans Canada Bedford institute of oceanography.

COMA, R., RIBES, M., GILI, J.-M. & ZABALA, M. 2000. Seasonality in coastal benthic ecosystems. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 15, 448-453.

DAVIE, P. 2011. Wild guide to moreton bay and adjacent coasts, Brisbane, Queensland museum.

EPELBAUM, A., PEARCE, C. M., BARKER, D. J., PAULSON, A. & THERRIAULT, T. W. 2009. Susceptibility of non-indigenous ascidian species in British Columbia (Canada) to invertebrate predation. Marine Biology, 156, 1311-1320.

GOTTO, R. 1966. Copepods associated with marine invertebrates from the northern coasts of Ireland. The Irish Naturalists' Journal, 15, 191-196.

GOTTO, R. V. 1954. On Mycophilus roseus Hesse, and other notodelphyoid copepods from Strangford Lough, Co. Down. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 124, 659-668.

KOTT, P. 2005. Stolidobranchia Catalogue of Tunicata in Australian waters. Australian Biological Resources Study.

MANNI, L., ZANIOLO, G., CIMA, F., BURIGHEL, P. & BALLARIN, L. 2007. Botryllus schlosseri: A model ascidian for the study of asexual reproduction. Developmental Dynamics, 236, 335-352.

MYERS, P. E. 1990. Space versus other limiting resources for a colonial tunicate, Botrylloides leachii (Savigny), on fouling plates. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 141, 47-52.

NEWTON, K. L., CREESE, B. & RAFTOS, D. 2007. Spatial patterns of ascidian assemblages on subtidal rocky reefs in the Port Stephens–Great Lakes Marine Park, New South Wales. Marine and Freshwater Research, 58, 843-855.

NIMPIS. 2012a. Botrylloides leachi feeding and predators [Online]. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System. Available: [Accessed 17 October 2012].

NIMPIS. 2012b. Botrylloides leachi general information [Online]. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System. Available: [Accessed 17 October 2012].

NIMPIS. 2012c. Botrylloides leachi impacts and vectors [Online]. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System. Available: [Accessed 17 October 2012].

NIMPIS. 2012d. Botrylloides leachi reproduction and habitat [Online]. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System. Available: [Accessed 17 October 2012].

PECHENIK, J. A. 2010. The nonvertebrate chordates. Biology of the invertebrates. 6th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

PETERSEN, J. K. 2007. Ascidian suspension feeding. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 342, 127-137.

RUPPERT, E. E., FOX, R. S. & BARNES, R. D. 2004. Tunicata (Urochordata). Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach. California: Brooks/cole.

SABBADIN, A. 1979. Colonial structure and genetic patterns in ascidians. Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms. Syst. Assoc. Special Vol, 433-444.

SAITO, Y., SHIRAE, M., OKUYAMA, M. & COHEN, S. 2001. Phylogeny of botryllid ascidians. In: SAWADA, H., YOKOSAWA, H. & LAMBERT, C. C. (eds.) The biology of ascidians. Hong Kong: Springer.

SATOH, N. 1994. Developmental biology of ascidians, Cambridge, Cambridge university press.

STOECKER, D. 1980. Chemical Defenses of Ascidians Against Predators. Ecology, 61, 1327-1334.

TIOZZO, S., BROWN, F. & TOMASO, A. 2008. Regeneration and Stem Cells in Ascidians. In: BOSCH, T. G. (ed.) Stem Cells. Springer Netherlands.