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You are here:   OldClasses > 2012 > Pyura sp. | Gillian Backhouse

 

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Pyura sp.

Gillian Backhouse (2012)


 

 

Fact Sheet

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Summary


Physical Description


Ecology


Life History & Behaviour


Anatomy & Physiology


Evolution & Systematics


Biogeographic Distribution


Conservation & Threats


References & Links

Evolution & Systematics

Ascidians belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata) within the phylum Chordata. Although the adult body plan of tunicates appears to be quite derived from the fundamental chordate body plan, at some point within their life history tunicates have all of the hallmark features of a chordate (see Anatomy & Physiology). Recent phylogenies however have shown that Tunicata are highly divergent from other chordate groups, suggesting they should be named as a separate phyla (Zeng & Swalla, 2005). Within the tunicates there are three classes; Ascidiacea, Thaliacea, and Appendicularia (Stach & Turbeville, 2002). Due to the vast diversity within the Tunicata, internal phylogenies of the groups are complex and uncertain (Stach & Turbeville, 2002).

Ascidacea was traditionally considered a monophyletic group with the two planktonic tunicate classes Thaliacea and Appendicularia sister to this group. Molecular phylogenies however have placed Thaliacae and Appendicularia within the Ascidacea (Figure 1; Stach & Turbeville, 2002).


Figure 1. Phylogeny of Tunicata Classes based on 18S rDNA sequences, adapted from Stach and Turbeville (2002)

Ascidiacea suborders Stolidobranchia and Phlebobranchia contain both solitary and colonial species, as does the class Thaliacea. Appendicularia however are all solitary and Aplousobranchia are all colonial despite being placed as sister taxa by Stach and Turbeville (2002; Zeng & Swalla, 2005). It is unclear whether the ancestral tunicate was solitary or colonial. Coloniality in Stolidobranchia is distinct from that in aplousobranchs and phlebobranchs and appears to have evolved multiple times within this clade from the solitary form (Pérez-Portela et al., 2009).

The species of ascidia studied here belongs to the genus Pyura. The genus Pyura belongs to the family Pyuridae, one of three family within the suborder Stolidobranchia; Molgulidae, Stylelidae, and Pyuridae (Pérez-Portela et al., 2009). Molgulidae is widely accepted as sister to Styelidae + Pyuridae. Styelidae is paraphyletic with Pyuridae sister to one of the clades of Styelidae (Figure 2; Pérez-Portela et al., 2009). The genus Pyura is polyphyletic within the family Pyuridae (Figure 2; Pérez-Portela et al., 2009).

Figure 2. Phylogeny of Pyuridae Genera based on 18S rDNA and COI sequences, adapted from Pérez-Portela et al. (2009)

Classification

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Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthia arenosa (Herdman, 1881)
Cynthia jacatrensis (Sluiter, 1890)
Halocynthia jacatrensis ((Sluiter, 1890))
Pyura jacatrensis ((Sluiter, 1890))
Tethyum jacatrensis ((Sluiter, 1890))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Ascidia australis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)
Boltenia australis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)
Pyura parvispinatus (Kott, 1952)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Boltenia bouvetensis (Michaelsen, 1904)
Boltenia salebrosa (Sluiter, 1905)
Boltenia scotti (Herdman, 1910)
Boltenia turqueti (Sluiter, 1905)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Boltenia carnea ((Brewin, 1948))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Ascidia pyura (Gmelin, 1791)
Cynthia chilensis ((Molina, 1782))
Cynthia clavigera (Traustedt, 1883)
Cynthia nodulosa (Drasche, 1884)
Cynthia socialis (Troschell, 1852)
Halocynthia chilensis ((Molina, 1782))
Pyura clavigera ((Traustedt, 1883))
Pyura molinae (Blainville, 1824)

Common Names

Chileense pyurazakpijp
red sea squirt
violet chilien
Chilenische Aszidie
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Halocynthia comma (Hartmeyer, 1906)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Common Names

ミナミカラスボヤ
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Halocynthia discoveryi (Herdman, 1910)
Holocynthia discoveryi (Herdman, 1910)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthia discrepans (Sluiter, 1898)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Common Names

クチベニボヤ
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthia fissa (Herdman, 1881)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthia gangelion (Savigny, 1816)
Halocynthia gangelion ((Savigny, 1816))
Pyura albanyensis (Michaelsen, 1927)
Pyura scoresbiensis (Kott, 1972)
Pyura tongaea (Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1976)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Boltenia antarctica (Beneden & Selys-Longchamps, 1913)
Boltenia georgiana (Michaelsen, 1898)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Boltenia gibbosa ((Heller, 1878))
Cynthia gibbosa (Heller, 1878)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthia erecta (Ritter, 1900)
Cynthia haustor (Stimpson, 1864)
Cynthia macrosiphonus (Ritter, 1900)
Halocynthia haustor ((Stimpson, 1864))
Halocynthia johnsoni (Ritter, 1909)
Halocynthia washingtonia (Ritter, 1913)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthiopsis herdmani ((Drasche, 1884))
Cynthiopsis valdivae (Michaelsen, 1904)
Cynthiopsis valdiviae (Michaelsen, 1904)
Microcosmus herdmani (Drasche, 1884)
Microcosmus herdmanii (Drasche, 1884)
Pyura herdmanni ((Drasche, 1884))
Pyura valdiviae ((Michaelsen, 1904))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthia irregularis (Herdman, 1881)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Boltenia coacta (Gould, 1852)
Boltenia coarcta (Gould, 1852)
Boltenia legumen (Lesson, 1830)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Common Names

ウロコボヤ
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Culeolus littoralis (Kott, 1956)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Cynthia lutea (Sluiter, 1900)
Pyura chathamensis (Brewin, 1956)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura

Synonyms

Pyura lycoperon (Monniot C. & Monniot F., 1983)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Ascidiacea
Order
Stolidobranchia
Family
Pyuridae
Genus
Pyura