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You are here:   OldClasses > 2012 > Holothuria atra |Emily Purton




Holothuria atra Jaeger




 Emily Purton (2012)







Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour

Anatomy & Physiology

Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

Anderson, SC, Flemming, JM, Watson, R, Lotze, HK 2011, ‘Serial exploitation of global sea cucumber fisheries’, Fish and Fisheries, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 317-339

Chao, SM, Chen, CP, Alexander, PS 1993, ‘Fission and its effect on population structure of Holothuria atra (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in Taiwan’, Marine Biology, vol. 116, pp. 106-115. 

Computer Generated Map for Holothuria atra (lollyfish), version of Aug. 2010. Web. Accessed 19 Oct 2012.

Delia, TJ, Hertel, LW 1977, ‘Characterization of the Aglycones of the toxic principle of the sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Toxicon, vol. 15, pp. 461-462. 

Dissanayake, DCT, Stefansson,G 2012, ‘Habitat preference of sea cucumbers: Holothuria atra and Holothuria edulis in the coastal waters of Sri Lanka’, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 92, no. 3, pp. 581-590.

Harriott, VJ 1980, ‘The ecology of holothurian fauna of Heron Reef and Moreton Bay’, M.Sc. thesis. University of Queensland, Brisbane. 

Harriott, VJ 1982, ‘Sexual and asexual reproduction of Holothuria atra Jaeger at Heron Island Reef, Great Barrier Reef’, Australian Museum Memoir, vol. 16, pp. 53–66. 

Kropp, RK 1982,‘Responses of Five Holothurian Species to Attacks by a Predatory Gastropod Tonna perdix’, University of Hawaii Press, vol. 36, no.4, pp. 445-452.

Motokawa, T 1984,‘Connective tissue catch in Echinoderms’, Biological Reviews, vol. 59, pp. 255-270. 

Parmentier, E, Fine, M, Vandewalle, P, Ducamp, JJ, Lagardère, JP 2006, ‘Sound production in two carapids (Carapus acus and C. mourlani) and through the sea cucumber teguments’, Acta Zoologica,vol. 87, pp. 113–119.

Purcell, SW, Gossuin, H, Agudo, NN 2009, ‘Status and management of the sea cucumber fishery of la Grande Terre, New Caledonia’, World Fish Center Studies andReviews, no. 1901, 138p. 

Tamori, M, Taemae, C, Motokawa, T 2010, ‘Evidence that water exudes when holothurian connective tissue stiffens’, The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.213, pp. 1960-1966. 

Thorne, BV, Eriksson, H, Byrne, M 2012, ‘Long term trends in population dynamics and reproduction in Holothuria atra (Aspidochirotida) in the southern Great Barrier Reef; the importance of asexual and sexual reproduction’, Journal of the Marine Biological Associationof the United Kingdom,  First view article, pp. 1-6

Tinker, SW 1965, Pacific Crustacea, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Tokyo.

Uthicke S 1997, ‘Seasonality of asexual reproduction in Holothuria (Halodeima) atra, Holothuria (H.) edulisand Stichopus chloronotus (Holothuroidea:Aspidochirotida) on the Great Barrier Reef’, Marine Biology, vol. 129, pp. 435-441.

Uthicke, S, Benzie, JAH, Ballment, E 1998, ‘Genetic structure of fissiparous populations of Holothuria (Halodeima) atra on the Great Barrier Reef’, Marine Biology, vol. 132, pp. 141-151. 

Ruppert ER, Fox RS, Barnes RD 2004, Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach, Seventh Edition. Brooks/Cole: Belmont.

Smith, AB 1988, ‘Fossil evidence for the relationships of extant echinoderm classes andtheir times of divergence’, Evolutionary phylogeny and biology. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.



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