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You are here:   animal list > Actinia tenebrosa

 

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Actinia tenebrosa (Farquhar1898)

Waratah anemone

Yiwen Yvonne Loh (2011)

 

Fact Sheet

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Overview

Brief Summary


Physical Description

Size


Identification Resources


Ecology

Biogeographical Distribution


Local Distribution and Habitats


Life History & Behaviour

Life History & Behaviour


Evolution & Systematics

Phylogenetics


Morphology and Physiology

External Morphology


Internal Anatomy


Cell Biology


Conservation

Threats


References & More Information

Bibliographies

Brief Summary

 

Actinia tenebrosa is a species of the genus Actinia belonging to the family Actiniidae under the order Actiniaria. They belong to the same order as corals, Anthozoa under the phylum Cnidaria. It is a mid intertidal species found along the tropical coasts of Australia and New Zealand. They are solitary polyps that lack the medusa stage as seen in some other Cnidarians. They are viviparous and practice both sexual and asexual reproduction where the former is thought to be the process where the first poly arose, followed by asexual reproduction as the species expands its range. They are opportunistic feeders that display intra specific aggressive behaviors during contest for space. Consistent with other cnidarians, A. tenebrosa has similar morphology and anatomy consistent with other cnidarians with the exception of acrorhagi that are only present in some genus such as the Actiniaria. The acrorhagi are specialised offense structures used solely during aggressive interactions with other conspecifics in a bid for territory. The structure of the nematocysts in A. tenebrosa is examined in detail because of its presence unique only to the phylum Cnidaria as well as its apparent importance in prey capture, defense and offense in the species. The results of a phylogenetic study were included in an attempt to elucidate the evolutionary relatedness amongst other genus of the family Actiniidae.       

 

Classification

Minimize
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia bermudensis ferruginea (Verrill, 1898)
Actinia bermudensis prunicolor (Verrill, 1907)
Diplactis bermudensis (McMurrich, 1889)

Common Names

maroon anemone
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia adspersa (Gravenhorst, 1831)
Actinia cari (Delle Chiaje, 1822)
Actinia cari concentrica ()
Actinia cari radiata ()
Actinia concentrica (Risso, 1826)
Actinia equina cari (Delle Chiaje, 1822)
Actinia virgata (Johnson, 1861)

Common Names

green sea anemone
Gürtelrose
Ringelrose
Λωριδανεμόνα
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia chlorodactyla (Brandt, 1835)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia cleopatrae (Hemprich & Ehrenberg in Ehrenberg, 1834)
Isacmaea cleopatrae ((Hemprich & Ehrenberg in Ehrenberg, 1834))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Paractis curta ()
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Diplactis delicatula ((Hertwig, 1888))
Hormathia delicatula (Hertwig, 1888)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinea chiococca ()
Actinea margaritifera ()
Actinea mesembryanthemum ()
Actinia cerasum (Dalyell, 1848)
Actinia chiococca (Cocks in Johnston, 1847)
Actinia corallina (Risso, 1826)
Actinia equina chiococca (Andr.)
Actinia equina mesembryanthemum (Linn.)
Actinia equine ()
Actinia equini ()
Actinia hemisphaerica (Pennant, 1777)
Actinia hemispherica (Pennant, 1777)
Actinia margaritifera (Templeton, 1836)
Actinia mesembryanthemum (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
Actinia purpurea (Cuvier, 1798)
Priapus equinus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Priapus ruber (Forsskål, 1775)

Common Names

anemonia e kuqe
thundërkali e kuqe
tomàquet de mar
gemeene zeeanemoon
gewone zeeanemoon
paardenanemoon
rode paardeanemoon
rode paardenanemoon
beadlet anemone
plum anemone
red sea anemone
hepomerivuokko
actinie rouge
Pferdeaktinie
Purpurrose
pomodoro di mare
ウメボシイソギンチャク
Κόκκινη ανεμώνα
Morango-do-mar
tomate de mar
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia equina fragacea (Gosse)

Common Names

aardbeianemoon
strawberry anemone
Erdbeeranemone
Erdbeerrose
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Bunodes gemma ((Drayton in Dana, 1846))
Cereus gemma ()
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia gracilis (Hemprich & Ehrenberg in Ehrenberg, 1834)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia laurentii (Brandt, 1835)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia mammillaris ()
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia equina mediterranea (Schmidt, 1971)
Actinia schmidti (Monteiro, Sole-Cava & Thorpe, 1997)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia mertensii (Brandt, 1835)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia mesembryanthemum (Ellis & Solander, 1786)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia equina prasina ()
Actinia mesembryanthemum prasina (Gosse, 1860)

Common Names

groene paardeanemoon
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia reclinata (Bosc, 1802)
Viatrix reclinata ((Bosc, 1802))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia rosula (Ehrenberg, 1834)
Paractis rosula ()
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia equina atlantica (Schmidt, 1971)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia simplex (Ehrenberg, 1834)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Actinioidea
Family
Actiniidae
Genus
Actinia

Synonyms

Actinia equina striata (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833)

Common Names

zebra anemoon