Select the search type
 
  • Site
  • Web
Search

 

Minimize

 

Bonellia viridis

Green Spoonworm


Lucie Malard (2013)                                                    


 

 

Fact Sheet

Minimize

Summary


Physical Description


External Morphology


Size


Ecology


Life History & Behaviour


Peristaltic movements


Feeding


Life Cycle


Sex Determination and Reproduction


Anatomy & Physiology


General Anatomy and Physiology


Digestive System


Proboscis


Bonellin Toxin


Parasitology


Evolution & Systematics


Biogeographic Distribution


Conservation & Threats


References & Links

Summary

Bonellia viridis are a species from the Bonellidae family, within the Echiurans. 
They are small cryptic animals, living in burrows inside rock boulders and are therefore hard to come across.
They have a cylindrical trunk and a long green proboscis due to the production of bonellin, a toxin active not only on prokariotic but also on eukaryotic cells (Agius et al, 1979). The proboscis is highly muscularized and heavily ciliated. As they are deposit feeders, their digestive system is very long and specialized. 
Sexual dimorphism is very high in this species as the females can measure up to 8 cm and males only 1 to 3 mm.  Their mode of reproduction is particular, as the male lives inside the female and fertilizes the eggs when necessary. 


Photo by Lucie Malard

Classification

Minimize
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Echiuroidea
Family
Bonelliidae
Genus
Bonellia

Synonyms

Bonellia fuliginosa (Roland, 1822)

Common Names

bonèl·lia
bonellia
grøn tungeorm
green spoon worm
green spoonworm
bonellie verte
grüne Bonelli
Grüner Igelwurm
bonellia