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Calliactis polypus

Hermit Crab Anemone

Tara Gatehouse (2014)

 


 

 

Fact Sheet

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Summary


Physical Description


Ecology


Life History & Behaviour


Reproduction


Feeding


Gas Exchange & Excretion


Locomotion


Anatomy & Physiology


External Morphology


Internal Anatomy & Physiology


Acontia


Retraction-Deflation Sequence


Autofluorescence


Evolution & Systematics


Evolution with Hermit Crabs


Phylogenetics


Biogeographic Distribution


Global Distribution


Local Distribution


Conservation & Threats


References & Links

Reproduction

C. polypus reproduces via both sexual and asexual methods. Asexual reproduction occurs via longitudinal fission, where one anemone splits into two individual anemones over a period of time. (Brooks and Mariscal, 1985) However, it is not known how often C. polypus reproduces asexually, as the most observed form of reproduction is sexual. (Brooks and Mariscal, 1985)


 

Figure 1: Asexual reproduction of anemone via longitudinal fission. (Bocharova and Kozevich, 2011)

Anemones can be both dioecious and hermaphroditic. Sexual reproduction in anemones relies on the formation of gametes. As anemones have no true gonads, their gametes accumulate on strips of tissue in the mesenteries. (Bocharova and Kozevich, 2011) Gametes then enter the gastrovascular cavity to be emptied through the mouth. Males and females release gametes into the surrounding water, known as spawning. The gametes then meet and are fertilised, either internally or externally, forming a zygote. The zygote develops into a planula larvae that often bears a well developed tuft of sensory cilia at its aboral end (Ruppert, 2004). It was found that C. polypus spawned, fertilised internally, and reared the planula larvae in the gastrovascular cavity for up to 36 days before releasing the planktonic offspring. (Cutress et al., 1970)

'Anemone Spawn' from Coral Morphologic on Vimeo. Sperm being released by Epicystis crucifer.


Due to small anemones being discovered, it is more likely that sexual reproduction occurs the majority of the time between individuals of Calliactis sp. Small anemones suggest that they have recently settled after undergoing metamorphosis from planktonic planula larvae. (Brooks and Mariscal, 1985)

Classification

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Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Metridioidea
Family
Hormathiidae
Genus
Calliactis

Synonyms

Actinia decorata (Couthouy in Dana, 1846)
Actinia maculata ()
Actinia polypus ()
Adamsia decorata ()
Adamsia miriam (Haddon & Shackleton, 1893)
Calliactis decorata ((Drayton in Dana, 1849))
Calliactis miriam (Haddon & Shackleton, 1893)
Cribrina polypus (Ehrenberg)
Priapus polypus (Forsskål, 1775)

Common Names

ベニヒモイソギンチャク