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Calliactis polypus

Hermit Crab Anemone

Tara Gatehouse (2014)

 


 

 

Fact Sheet

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Summary


Physical Description


Ecology


Life History & Behaviour


Reproduction


Feeding


Gas Exchange & Excretion


Locomotion


Anatomy & Physiology


External Morphology


Internal Anatomy & Physiology


Acontia


Retraction-Deflation Sequence


Autofluorescence


Evolution & Systematics


Evolution with Hermit Crabs


Phylogenetics


Biogeographic Distribution


Global Distribution


Local Distribution


Conservation & Threats


References & Links

Phylogenetics

Anthozoan phylogeny is not well studied and there are several different models that have been proposed. C. polypus is located within the taxa Zoantharia within Anthozoa. Zoantharia are united by hexamerous symmetry and spirocyst synapomorphy. (Ruppert, E.E., 2003) Also included within Zoantharia are the stony corals and coral anemones, however the relationships between the 3 groups are unclear. The tree below shows morphological classification within Anthozoa.

Tree 1: Morphological tree of anthozoa down to order. (Ruppert, E.E., 2003)

A more in depth study was conducted by (Gusmão and Daly, 2010) of the molecular data between several species of sea anemones, including several species also symbiotic with hermit crabs and gastropods. 

Tree 2: Molecular phylogenetic tree. "Maximum likelihood tree resulting from a combined analysis of sequences from 12S, 16S, 18S, 28S (partial) ribosomal genes and Cytochrome Oxidase subunit III. Numbers on branches are bootstrap values from maximum likelihood analyses and posterior probabilities from Bayesian analyses, respectively. Only bootstrap values higher than 70% and posterior probabilities greater than 0.70 are shown. Grey rectangles indicate species of Hormathiidae symbiotic with hermit crabs (HC symbionts) and gastropods (GA symbionts)."  (Gusmão and Daly, 2010)


Classification

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Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Cnidaria
Class
Anthozoa
Order
Actiniaria
Superfamily
Metridioidea
Family
Hormathiidae
Genus
Calliactis

Synonyms

Actinia decorata (Couthouy in Dana, 1846)
Actinia maculata ()
Actinia polypus ()
Adamsia decorata ()
Adamsia miriam (Haddon & Shackleton, 1893)
Calliactis decorata ((Drayton in Dana, 1849))
Calliactis miriam (Haddon & Shackleton, 1893)
Cribrina polypus (Ehrenberg)
Priapus polypus (Forsskål, 1775)

Common Names

ベニヒモイソギンチャク