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Cenolia glebosis

Black Featherstar

Sophie Horsfall (2014)


Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Local Distribution and Habitats

Commensalism and Predation

Life History & Behaviour

Life History Traits


Anatomy & Physiology

External Anatomy

Internal Anatomy


Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links


Encyclopedia of Life:

Atlas of Living Australia:

World Register of Marine Species:

Accurate Description of Species:
Atlas of Living Australia and Rowe et al (1966)


Alender, C.B. et al. 1966. Physiology of Echinodermata. JohnWiley & Sons, Inc, United States of America.

Brett, C.E. 1978. Host-specific pit-forming epizoans onSilurian crinoids. Lethaia, 11, 217-232.

Bush, S.E. et al .2010. Evolution of cryptic coloration inectoparasites.TheAmerican Naturalist, 176, 529-535.

Cohen, B. L.  et al. 2004.Crinoid phylogeny: a preliminary analysis (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). MarineBiology, 144, 605-617.

Dupont, S. et al. 2010. Impact of near-future oceanacidification on echinoderms. Ecotoxicology, 19, 449-462.

Eeckhaut, I. et al. 2000. Myzostomida: a link betweentrochozoans and flatworms? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Biological,267, 1383-1392.

Emson, R.H. and Wilkie, I.C. 1980. Fission and autotomy inechinoderms. Oceanography and Marine Biology, Annual Review, 18, 155-250.

Holland, N.D and Grimmer, J.C. 1981. Fine Structure of theCirri and a Possible Mechanism for Their Motility in Stalkless Crinoids(Echinodermata). Cell Tissue Res, 214, 207-217.

Hymen, L.H. 1955. The invertebrates. Vol. 4. Echinodermata.McGraw-Hill Publications, New York.

Lanterbecq, D. et al. 2006. Molecular phylogenetic analysesindicate multiple independent emergences of parasitism in Myzostomida(Protostomia). Systematic Biology, 55, 208-227.

Messing, C.G. 1997. Living comatulids. In: Waters J.A.,Maples, C.G. (Eds.), Geobiology of Echinoderms. Paleontological Society, Lodon.

Meyer, D.L. 1971. The collagenous nature of problematicligaments in crinoids (Echinodermata). Marine Biology, 9, 235-241.

Meyer, D. L. 1973. Feeding Behaviour and Ecology ofShallow-Water Unstalked Crinoids (Echinodermata) in the Caribbean Sea. MarineBiology, 22, 105-129.

Meyer, D.L. 1979. Length and Spacing of the Tube Feet in Crinoids (Echinodermata) and Their Role in Suspension-Feeding. Marine Biology,51, 361-369.

Meyer, D.L and Ausich, W.I. 1983. Biotic interactions amongrecent and among fossil crinoids. In: Tervesz, M.J.S, Mc Gall, P.L (Eds.),Biotic Interactions in Recent and Fossil Benthic Communities. Plenum Press, NewYork, pp. 377-427.

Meyer, D.L and Macurda, D.B. 1977. Adaptive Radiation of theComatulid crinoids. Paleobiology, 3, 74-82.

Mledenov, P.V. 1983. Rate of arm regeneration and potentialcauses of arm loss in the feather star Florometraserratissima (Echinodermata: Crinoidea). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 61,2873- 2879.

Oji, T and Okamoto, T. 1994. Arm Autotomy and Arm BranchingPattern as Anti-Predatory Adaptations in Stalked and Stalkless Crinoids.Paleobiology, 20, 27-39.

Perrier, E.1873. Recherches sur l’anatomie et le regenerationdes bras de la Comatula rosacea (Antedonrosaceus,Linck). Archives de zoologie experimentale et generale, 2, 29-86.

Radwanska,U. and Radwanski, A. 2005. Myzostomid and copepod infestation of Jurassicechinoderms: a general approach, some new occurrences, and/or reinterpretationof previous reports. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, 55, 109-130.

Roux, M. etal. 2002. Artificial keys to the genera of living stalked crinoids(Echinodermata). Bulletin of Marine Science, 70, 799-830.

Rowe, al 1986. Revision of some comasterids genera from Australia (Echinodermata:Crinoidea), with descriptions of two new genera and nine new species.Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 86, 197-277.

Rideout,J.A. et al. Chemical defense of crinoids by poluketide sulphates. Experientia,35, 1273-1416.

Ruppert, E. E. et al. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology: AFunctional Evolutionary Approach, Australia, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

Warn, J.M.1974. Presumed myzostomid infestation of an Ordovician crinoid. Journal of Paleontology, 48, 506-513.