Select the search type
  • Site
  • Web




Entacmaea quadricolor

Bubble-tip anemone

Nicola Wood (2013)


Fact Sheet



Physical Description




Life History and Behaviour





Anatomy & Physiology

Internal Morphology




Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links


Daly M., Fautin D.G.& Cappola V.A.(2003) Systematics of the Hexacorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 139: 419:437

Fautin D.G., Crowther A.L. & Wallace, C.C. (2008) Sea Anemones (Cnidaria: Anthoza: Actiniaria) or Morteon Bay, Memoirs of the Queenslands Museum. Nature. 50(1)

Frazao B., Vasconelos V. & Antunes A. (2012) Sea Anemone (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Actiniaria) Toxins: An Overview. Marine Drugs.10: 1812-1851

Gomaa M.N., Farag A.M., Ayesh A. M. & Embaby M.A. (2013) Isolation and Structure of Acetyl Cholinesterase Inhibitor from Gyrostoma helianthus of the Red Sea, Egypt. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 14: 1569-1575

Jones A. (2012) Does collecting inhibit the recovery of anemone and anemonefish populations after bleaching? Proceedings of the 12th International Coral Reef Symposium, Cairns, Australia

Kansas University. Chapter 1: Sea Anemones (2013). Accessed November 20, via

Kurup R., Johnson A.J., Sankar S., Hussain A.A., Kumar C. & Sabulal B. Fluorescent prey traps in carnivorous plants. Plant Biology. 15: 611-615

Knutson T.R., McBride J.L., Chan J., Emanuel K., Holland G., Landsea C., Held I., Kossin J.P., Srivastava A.K. & Sugi M. (2010) Tropical cyclones and climate change. Nature Geoscience. DOI: 10.1038/ngeo779

Matz M.V. Lukyanov K.A. & Lukyanov S.A. (2002) Family of the green fluorescent protein: journey to the end of the rainbow. BioEssays. 24: 953-959

Mebs D. (2009) Chemical biology of the mutualistic relationships of sea anemones with fish and crustaceans. Toxicon. 54: 1071-1074

Park, E., Hwang, D., Lee J., Sing J., Seo T. & Won Y. (2012) Estimation of divergence times in cnidarian evolution based on mitochondrial protein-coding genes and fossil record. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 62: 329-345

Peterson J. Wilmann P.G., Beddoe T., Oakley A.J., Devenish R.J., Prescott M. & Rossjohn J. (2003). The 2.0-Å Crystal Structure of eqFP611, a Far Red Fluorescent Protein from the Sea Anemone Entacmaea quadricolor. Journal of biological chemistry. 278: 44626-44631

Piatkevich K.D., Efremenko E.N., Verkhusha V.V. & Varfolomeev S.D. (2010) Red fluorescent protiens and their properties. Russian Chemical Reviews. 79: 243-258

Porat D. & Chadwick-Furman N.E (2004) Effects of anemonefish on giant sea anemones: expansion behaviour growth and survival. Hydrobiologia. 530-531: 513-520

Richardson D.L., Harriott V.J. & Harrison P.L. (1997) Distribution and abundance of giant sea anemones (Actiniaria) in subtropical eastern Australian waters. Marine and Freshwater Research.48: 59 – 66

Roopin M. & Chadwick N.E. (2009) Benefits to host sea anemones from ammonia contributions of resident anemonefish. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 370:27-34

Ruppert E.E., Fox R.S. & Barnes R.D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology. Brooks/Cole, Belmount, CA, USA, pg 112-146

Schwarck N.T. (1999). Carbon Budgets of the Bulb-Tentacle Sea Anemone (Entacmaea quadricolor) Symbiotic with Zooxanthellae and Anemonefish. MA Thesis.

Scott A. & Harrison P. (2007a) Broadcast spawing of two species of sea anemone, Entacmae aquadricolor and Heteractis crispa, that host anemonefish. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 30: 167-171

Scott A. & Harrison P. (2007b) Embryonic and Larval Development of Host Sea Anemone Entacmaea quadricolor and Heteractis crispa. Biological Bulletin. 213: 110-121

Scott A. & Harrison P. (2008) Larval settlement and development of sea anemones that provide habitat for anemonefish. Marine Biology. 154: 833-839

Scott A. & Harrison P.L. (2009) Gametogenic and reproductive cycles of the sea anemone, Entacmaea quadricolor', Marine Biology, 156: 1659-1671.

Scott A. & Hill R. (2012) The influence of irradiance on the severity of thermal bleaching in sea anemones that host anemonefish. Coral Reef. 31:273-284

Shimomura M.H., Johnson O., Winant F.H. Intermolecular energy transfer in bioluminescent system of Aequorea. Biochemistry 1974;13: 2656–2662

Szczebak J.T. Henry R.P. AI-Horani F.A. & Chadwick N.E. (2013). Anemonefish oxygenate their anemone hosts at night. Journal of Experimental Biology. 216: 970-976