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P Kamptozoa (Entoprocta)





Overview & Classification




Biogeographic Distribution

Physical Characteristics

External Features

Internal Features

Biology & Behaviour

Reproduction & Development

Nutrition, Transport & Excretion

Predation & Disease

Climate Change

Evolution & Systematics

Diversity & Identification



Acknowledgments, References & Additional Notes

Overview & Classification

Members of the Loxosomatidae family of kamptozoans, or entoprocts, are small cryptic filter-feeding organisms, around 0.2-0.3mm long, found on the cuticle of the bryozoan Iodictyum, and living as commensals. These can be found on the underside of rocks of the inner reef crest, on the northern part of the island. Other species have been found to live on other organisms such as sponges and polychaetes...

...more in Ecology

They are made up of a cup-shaped body with tentacles, and a foot along a stem, or stalk, for attachment to the host, resembling bryozoans only in morphological features. They derive their name entoproct from the position of their anus within the circular crown of tentacles...

...more in Physical Characteristics

They capture food particles in cilia located on their tentacles and transport them downwards towards the mouth, to be processed by a complete U-shaped gut...

...more in Nutrition, Transport & Excretion

These particular organisms found on the Heron Island coral reef exhibit clear asexual reproduction by budding of new zooids from the parental solitary organism. Other forms of asexual and sexual reproduction are exhibited in other families of kamptozoans, which produce short-living planktonic larvae...

...more in Reproduction & Development

They are the food of various cryptic crustaceans and benthic molluscs, notably nudibranchs, found in the coral rubble community...

...more in Predation & Disease
Kingdom:  Animalia
Plylum: Kamptozoa (Entoprocta)
Class: N/A
Order: N/A
Family:  Loxosomatidae