Select the search type
  • Site
  • Web




Lyncina vitellus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Milk Spot Cowrie

Chelsea Waters (2014)



Fact Sheet



Physical Description

Size and Colouration

Shell Morphology


Local Distribution and Habitats

Biogeographical Distribution

Crypsis and Defence

Life History & Behaviour


Sensory System

Growth and Development



Anatomy & Physiology

External Morphology


Evolution & Systematics

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

SURG (2013). Cypraeidae. Retrieved May 14, 2014 from

Nordsieck, R (2014). The Gastropod Shell. Retrieved May 14, 2014 from

Australian Faunal Directory (2014). Lyncina vitellus (Linnaeus, 1758). Retrieved May 18, 2014 from 

Irie, T & Morimoto, N (2008). Phenotypic Plasticity and Sexual Dimorphism in Size at Post-Juvenile Metamorphosis: Common-Garden Rearing of an Intertidal Gastropod with Determinate Growth. Biological Bulletin, 215(2), 126-134. doi: 10.2307/25470693

Cypraea (2014). Retrieved May 18, 2014 from

Archerd Shell Collection (2014). Family Cypraeidae (Cowries). Retrieved May 19, 2014 from

Ruppert. E, Fox. R, Barned. R (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional and Evolutionary Approach (7th Edition), Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning. 

Histology (2005). LUMEN Histology Slide Series. Loyola University Medical Education Network, Retrieved May 30, 2014 from

Ciliopathy Allance (2010). Structure and Function of Cilia, Retrieved May 30, 2014 from

Specian. R, Oliver. M (1991). Functional Biology of intestinal goblet cells. Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Louisiana State University Medical Centre, Retrieved May 30, 2014 from

Bowen, R (1998). Goblet Cells. Biomedical Hypertexts, Retrieved May 30, 2014 from

Burgess, C (1985). Cowries of the World. University of Hawaii, CTP Book Printers Cape. 

No author (2013). The Circulatory System, Biology Questions and Answers, Retrieved May 31, 2014 from

Savazzi, E (1998). The Colour Patterns of cypraeid gastropods. Department of Geosciences, Sweden, 31, 15-27, Retrieved May 31, 2014 from

Wilson, B (1985). Direct Development in Southern Australian cowries, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 36(2), 267-280, doi: 10.1071/MF9850267

Beesly. P, Ross. G, Wells. A (1996). Mollusca: The Southern Synthesis, Fauna of Australia Volume 5, CSIRO Publishing. 

Meyer, C (2002). Molecular systematics of cowries (Gastropoda: Cypraeidae) and diversification patterns in the tropics, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 79, 401-459, Retrieved June 2, 2014 from

Allen. J, Bell. G, Kuziria. A, Hanlon. R (2013). Cuttlefish skin papilla morphology suggests a muscular hydrostatic function for rapid changeability, 274(6), 645-56, doi: 10.1002/jmor.20121

Theodore. C (1989). Significance of Shell Thickness in Cowries (Mesogastropoda: Cypraeidae), Bulletin of Marine Science, University of Miami, 45(2), 505-518.

Umland,H (2008). High Voltage and X-Ray Experiments, Text and Graphics, Retrieved on June 4, 2014 from