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Macrophiothrix sp.  Brittle star

​Amber Dearden 2014                                                     

 

Fact Sheet

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Summary


Physical Description


Ecology


Life History & Behaviour


Anatomy & Physiology


Evolution & Systematics


Biogeographic Distribution


Conservation & Threats


References & Links

Summary

Brittle stars, or Ophiuroidea, of the Echinodermata phylum, are a diverse and very common group of Eleutherozoans. They have long, slender snake-like arms which have given rise to the nickname ‘serpent stars’. Brittle stars are a very common marine organism which inhabit a vast array of environments from shallow pools to abyssal depths. You would be hard-pressed not to run into these highly adapted creatures on a trip to the sea.

Most species have 5 arms centered around a pentagonal or circular shaped disc, although some may have up to 7 or 8 arms.

Known for their fragile nature, they become brittle when handled and this may cause them to discard an arm or two, however they possess regenerative properties which allow them to grow back any lost limbs.

Of the ~65 or so species listed for Macrophiothrix, many share a large resemblance to one another, external and internal (http://marine-species.web-definition.com/definitions/?scientificname=macrophiothrix_rugosa, Hoggett, 1991).
This makes them tricky to identify, and there have been many mislabelled specimens in the past (Hoggett, 1991). Due to this, the specimen used for this study was unable to be identified down to species level, so instead, this page will focus on the characteristics of the whole Macrophiothrix genus. 

They bear some similarities to the closely related asteroids, with their radial symmetry and generally, 5 arms.

Classification

Minimize
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Kingdom
Chromista
Phylum
Ochrophyta
Class
Xanthophyceae
Order
Mischococcales
Family
Ophiocytiaceae
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix armata (Koehler, 1905)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix deceptor (Koehler, 1922)

Common Names

アカイボクモヒトデ
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix diligens (Koehler, 1898)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix exhibita (Koehler, 1905)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiogymna saltatrix (McKnight, 1968)
Ophiothrix lepidus hawaiiensis (Clark, A.H., 1949)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix leucotrigona (H.L. Clark, 1918)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix proteus (Koehler, 1905)
Placophiothrix proteus ((Koehler, 1905))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix fallax (de Loriol, 1893)
Ophiothrix lorioli (Döderlein, 1896)
Ophiothrix purpurea (von Martens, 1867)
Placophiothrix purpurea ((von Martens, 1867))

Common Names

アカトゲクモヒトデ
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophionyx scorpio (Müller & Troschel, 1842)
Ophiothrix scorpio ((Müller & Troschel, 1842))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix scotiosa (Murakami, 1943)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix signata (Koehler, 1922)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix spinosissima (Koehler, 1905)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix suensoni (Lütken, 1856)
Ophiothrix suensonii (Lütken, 1856)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix versatilis (Koehler, 1930)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix vetusta (Koehler, 1930)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix vexator (Koehler, 1930)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix vigelandi (A.M. Clark, 1968)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Acanthophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix viridialba (von Martens, 1867)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix accedens (Koehler, 1930)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix angulata ((Say, 1825))
Ophiothrix hispida (Ayres, 1854)
Ophiura angulata (Say, 1825)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix
Species
angulata

Synonyms

Ophiothrix angulata megalaspsis (H.L. Clark, 1918)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix
Species
angulata

Synonyms

Ophiothrix angulata phlogina (H.L. Clark, 1918)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix
Species
angulata

Synonyms

Ophiothrix angulata phoinissa (H.L. Clark, 1918)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix
Species
angulata

Synonyms

Ophiothrix angulata poecila (H.L. Clark, 1918)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix
Species
angulata

Synonyms

Ophiothrix angulata violacea ((Müller & Troschel, 1842))
Ophiothrix violacea (Müller & Troschel, 1842)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix aristulata (Lyman, 1879)
Ophiothrix aristulata investigatoris (Koehler, 1897)
Ophiothrix investigatoris (Koehler, 1897)
Ophiothrix megaloplax (Koehler, 1930)
Placophiothrix aristulata ((Lyman, 1879))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix caespitosa (Lyman, 1879)
Ophiothrix hartmeyeri (Koehler, 1907)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix acestra (H.L. Clark, 1909)
Ophiothrix carinata (von Martens, 1870)
Ophiothrix ciliaris (Müller & Troschel, 1842)
Ophiothrix melanogramma (Bell, 1884)
Ophiothrix stabilis (Koehler, 1904)
Ophiothrix stelligera (Lyman, 1874)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix consecrata (Koehler, 1930)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix contenta (Koehler, 1930)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix crassispina (Koehler, 1904)
Ophiothrix cumulata (Koehler, 1922)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix deposita (Koehler, 1904)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix dyscrita (H.L. Clark, 1915)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix echinotecta (Balinsky, 1957)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Echinodermata
Class
Ophiuroidea
Order
Amphilepidida
Superfamily
Ophiactoidea
Family
Ophiotrichidae
Genus
Ophiothrix
Subgenus
Ophiothrix

Synonyms

Ophiothrix elegans (Lütken, 1869)