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Palythoa caesia (Dana1846)

Sea Mat Anemone

Ka Hei Charlotte Chan (2013)


Fact Sheet



Physical Description




Biogeographical Distribution

Local Distribution & Habitats

Life History & Behaviour

Anatomy & Physiology

External Morphology

Internal Anatomy

Cell Biology

Toxicity (Experiment)


Evolution & Systematics

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

 References & Links 

Acosta.A, Gonzalea. M.A., 2007, ‘Fission in the Zoatharia Palythoa caribaeorum(Duchassaing and Michelotii, 1860) populations: A latitudinal comparison’,Bol.Invest.Mar.Cost. 36, 151-165.

Borneman.H.E.,2004, Aquarium Corals: Selection,Husbandry, and Natural History, T.F.H. Publications Inc., Neptune city,USA.

Burnett.J.W, Benzie. H.A.J, Beardmore. A.J, Ryland. S.J., 1994, ‘High geneticvariability and patchiness in a common Great Barrier Reef zoanthid (Palythoacaesia)’, Springer-verlag, Marine Biology 121, 153-160.

Burnett.J.W., 2002, ‘Longitudinal variation in algal symbionts (zooanthellae) from theIndian Ocean zoanthids Palythoa caesia’, Marine ecology progress series 1234,105-109.

Burnett.J.W, Benzie.H.A.J, Beardmore. A.J, Ryland. S.J., 1997, ‘Zoanthids (Anthozoa,Hexacorallia) from the Great Barrier Reef and Torres Strait, Australia:systematics, evolution and a key to species’, Coral Reefs 16, 55-68.

Carmenlouzoa. M, Espina. B, Cagida.E, Ares.E.I, Alfonso.A, Vieytes.R.M, Botana.M.L.,2010, ‘Cytotoxic effect of palytoxin on mussel’, Elsevier, Toxicon 56, 842-847.

Daly.M, Fautin.G.D, Cappola. A.V., 2003, ‘Systematics of the Hexacorallia(Cnidaria:Anthozoa)’, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139, 419-437.

Deeds.R.J & Schwartz. D.M., 2010, ‘Human risk associated with palytoxin exposure’,Elsevier, Toxicon 56, 150-162.

Hibino. Y, Todd. A.P, Yang. SY, Benayahu. Y, Reimer. D.J., 2013, ‘Molecular andmorphological evidence for conspecificity of two common Indo-Pacific species ofPalythoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)’, springer, Hydrobiologia.

Munday.R.,2011, ‘Palytoxin toxicology: Animal studies’,Elsevier, Toxicon 57, 470-477.

Pandya. M.k.,&  Mankodi. C.P., 2013, ‘Brachycnemic Zooxanthellate Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Zoantharia) of Saurashtra Coast: A Preliminary Survey’, Research Journal of Marine Sciences 1(1), 10-13.

Polak. O,Laya. Y, Brickner. I, Kramarski-Winter. E, Benayahu., 2011, ‘The widely-distributed Indo-Pacific Zoanthid Palythoa Tuberculosa: A sexually conservativestrategist’, Coral reef paper, Bulletin of marine science 87(3), 605-621.

Ramos.V and Vasconcelos. V., 2010, ‘Palytoxin and analogs: Biological and EcologicalEffects’, Marine Drugs 8, 2021-2037.

Riobo. P & Franco. M.J., 2011, ‘Palytoxins: biological and chemical determination’,Elsevier, Toxicon 57, 368-375.

Ruppert. E, Fox. R, Barnes. R., 2004, InvertebrateZoology, 7th edn, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning, Belmont, USA.

Ryland. S.J & Lancaster. E.L., 2004, ‘A review of zoathid nematocyst types and theirpopulation structure’, Hydrobiologia 531/531, 179-187.

Ryland.S.J., 1997, ‘Reproduction in Zoanthidea (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia)’, InvertebrateReproduction & development, 31:1-3, 177-188,DOL:10.1080/07924259.1997.9672575.

Shiroma. E & Reimer. D.J., 2010, ‘Investigations into Reproductive patterns, ecology,and Morphology in the Zoanthid Genus Palythoa (Cnidaria: Anthozoa:Hexacorallia) in Okinawa, Japan’, Zoological studies, Zoological studies 49(2),182-194.

Sinniger.F, Montoya-Burgos. I.J, Chevaldonne.P, Pawlowski. J., 2005, ‘Phylogeny of theorder Zoatharia (Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) based on the mitochondrial ribosomalgenes’, Marine Biology 147, 1121-1128.

Tanner E.J.,1997, ‘The Effects of Density on the Zoanthid Palythoa caesia’, BritishEcological Society, Journal of Animal Ecology 66(6), 793-810.

Tanner.E.J., 1999, ‘Density-dependent population dynamics in clonal organisms: amodelling approach’, Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 390-399.

Tanner.E.J.,2002, ‘Consequences of density-dependent heterotrophic feeding for a partialautotroph’, Marine Ecology Progress series 227, 293-304.

Tubaro.A, Durando.P, Del Favero. G, Ansaldi. F, Icardi.G, Deeds.R.J, Sosa.S., 2011, ‘CaseDefinitions for human poisonings postulated to palytoxins exposure’, Elsevier,Toxicon 57, 478-495.

Wu. H.C., 2009, ‘Palytoxin: membrane mechanisms ofaction ’, Elsevier, Toxicon 54, 1183-1189.