Select the search type
 
  • Site
  • Web
Search

 

Minimize

 

Phascolosoma nigrescens


Rodrigo Zorrilla Gonzalez (2014)


 

Fact Sheet

Minimize

Summary


Physical Description


Ecology


Life History & Behaviour


Reproduction & Development


Feeding


Musculature and Movement


Anatomy & Physiology


Respiration


Evolution & Systematics


Taxonomy and Synonyms


Biogeographic Distribution


Conservation & Threats


References & Links

Summary

Phascolosoma nigrescens (Keferstein, 1865) is a bilaterally symmetrical, unsegmented marine worm-like species of the phyla Sipuncula. The use of sipunculids as fish bait has been known to fisherman since as early as the 16th century (Saiz, 1993). The first scientific article on the Sipuncula phyla was published by Guillaume Rondelet in 1555. Figure 1 depicts a reproduction of Rondelet's paper. Much controversy exists surrounding the phylogeny of this phyla, and recent evidence suggests all Sipuncula may be a subgroup of the Annelid phylum. P.nigrescens has an introvert usually as long as the trunk (though this varies between individuals) and at least 30 rows of hooks – the main feature used to identify this species. The external body wall is covered with conical papillae, and the introvert bears distinctive black pigment bands on the dorsal surface. P. nigrescens uses its introvert, as well as biochemical processes to bore into coral rocks and is considered a deposit feeder. Little is known about P. nigrescens, but it is generally accepted that they are dioeceous. A study on the movement and musculature of P. nigrescens was conducted at the University of Queensland, and anatomical sections were prepared. Four potential locomotion types were identified, but mainly, it  was determined that P. nigrescens has very limited mobility outside of its coral burrow. 

Figure 1: Reproduction of the first scientific paper on the Phyla Sipuncula, from Rondeletti, 1555 in Saiz, 1993

Classification

Minimize
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Fisherana

Synonyms

Apionsoma abyssorum ((Southern, 1913))
Apionsoma capitata ((Gerould, 1913))
Fisherana capitata ((Gerould, 1913))
Golfingia capitata ((Gerould, 1913))
Golfingia savalovi (Murina, 1974)
Phascolosoma abyssorum ((Southern, 1913))
Physcosoma abyssorum (Southern, 1913)
Physcosoma capitatum (Gerould, 1913)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Fisherana

Synonyms

Fisherana lobostoma ((W. Fischer, 1895))
Fisherana wasini ((Lanchester, 1905))
Golfingia lobostoma ((W. Fischer, 1895))
Phascolosoma lobostoma (W. Fischer, 1895)
Phascolosoma wasini (Lanchester, 1905)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma
Species
agassizii

Synonyms

Phascolosoma agassizi (Keferstein, 1866)
Phascolosoma formosense ((Sato, 1939))
Phascolosoma glaucum ((Sato, 1930))
Phascolosoma golikovi (Murina, 1975)
Phascolosoma japonicum (Grnbe, 1877)
Phascolosoma yezoense ((Ikeda, 1924))
Phymosoma agassizii ((Keferstein, 1866))
Phymosoma japonicum ((Grnbe, 1877))
Phymosoma lordi (Baird, 1868)
Physcosoma agassizii ((Keferstein, 1866))
Physcosoma formosense (Sato, 1939)
Physcosoma glaucum (Sato, 1930)
Physcosoma japonicum ((Grnbe, 1877))
Physcosoma yezoense (Ikeda, 1924)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma
Species
agassizii

Synonyms

Phascolosoma kurilense ((Sato, 1937))
Physcosoma kurilense (Sato, 1937)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma andamanensis (Johnson, 1971)
Phascolosoma microdontoton ((Sluiter, 1886))
Phymosoma albolineatum ((Baird, 1868))
Phymosoma microdontoton (Sluiter, 1886)
Physcosoma albolineatum ((Baird, 1868))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma tasmaniense ((W. Fischer, 1914))
Physcosoma scolops tasmaniense (W. Fischer, 1914)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma ambonense ((W. Fischer, 1896))
Phascolosoma arcuatum arcuatum ((Gray, 1828))
Phascolosoma arcuatum malaccense ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Phascolosoma deani ((Ikeda, 1905))
Phascolosoma esculenta ((Chen and Yeh, 1958))
Phascolosoma esculentum ((Chen and Yeh, 1958))
Phascolosoma lurco ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Phascolosoma rhizophora (Sluiter, 1891)
Phymosoma deani (Ikeda, 1905)
Phymosoma lurco (Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883)
Phymosoma lurco malaccensis (Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883)
Physcosoma ambonense (W. Fischer, 1896)
Physcosoma esculenta (Chen and Yeh, 1958)
Physcosoma lurco ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Physcosoma lurco malaccensis ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Siphunculus arcuatus (Gray, 1828)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma dunwichi (Edmonds, 1956)
Phascolosoma guttatum ((Quatrefages, 1865))
Phascolosoma nahaense ((Ikeda, 1904))
Phascolosoma psaron ((Sluiter, 1886))
Phascolosoma riukiuensis (Murina, 1975)
Phascolosoma rottnesti (Edmonds, 1956)
Phascolosoma scolops ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Phascolosoma scolops adenticulatum ((HTrubel, 1904))
Phascolosoma scolops mossambiciense ((Selenka in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Phascolosoma scolops scolops ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Phascolosoma socium ((Lanchester, 1905))
Phascolosoma spongicolum ((Sluiter, 1902))
Phymosoma nahaense (Ikeda, 1904)
Phymosoma psaron (Sluiter, 1886)
Phymosoma scolops (Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883)
Phymosoma scolops mossambiciense (Selenka in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883)
Physcosoma psaron ((Sluiter, 1886))
Physcosoma scolops ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Physcosoma scolops adenticulatum (HTrubel, 1904)
Physcosoma scolops mossambiciense ((Selenka in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Physcosoma socium (Lanchester, 1905)
Physcosoma spongicola (Sluiter, 1902)
Sipunculus carneus ((Leuckart and Rnppell, 1828))
Sipunculus guttatus (Quatrefages, 1865)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma
Species
glabrum

Synonyms

Phascolosoma funafutiense ((W. Fischer, 1914))
Physcosoma funafutiense (W. Fischer, 1914)
Physcosoma glabrum (Sluiter, 1902)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma
Species
glabrum

Synonyms

Phascolosoma multiannulata (Wesenberg-Lund, 1954)
Phascolosoma multiannulatum (Wesenberg-Lund, 1954)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Physcosoma granulatum ((Leuckart, 1828))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phymosoma maculatum (Sluiter, 1886)
Physcosoma maculatum ((Sluiter, 1886))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phymosoma meteori (HTrubel, 1904)
Physcosoma meteori ((HTrubel, 1904))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phymosoma nigritorquatum (Sluiter, 1881)
Physcosoma nigritorquatum ((Sluiter, 1881))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma grayi (Baird, 1868)
Sipunculus javanensis (Quatrefages, 1865)
Sipunculus javensis (Quatrefages, 1865)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma asperum (Grnbe, 1868)
Phymosoma asperum ((Grnbe, 1868))
Phymosoma pacificum ((Keferstein, 1866))
Physcosoma pacificum ((Keferstein, 1866))
Sipunculus javanensis (Quatrefages, 1865)
Sipunculus javensis (Quatrefages, 1865)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma diaphanes ((Sluiter, 1886))
Phascolosoma duplicigranulatum ((Sluiter, 1886))
Phascolosoma evisceratum ((Lanchester, 1905))
Phascolosoma extortum ((Sluiter, 1902))
Phascolosoma horsti ((ten Broeke, 1925))
Phascolosoma lacteum ((Sluiter, 1886))
Phascolosoma minutum ((ten Broeke, 1925))
Phascolosoma nigrescens (Keferstein, 1865)
Phascolosoma planispinosum (Baird, 1868)
Phascolosoma plicatum ((Quatrefages, 1865))
Phascolosoma spengeli ((Sluiter, 1886))
Phascolosoma varians (Keferstein, 1865)
Phymosoma diaphanes (Sluiter, 1886)
Phymosoma duplicigranulatum (Sluiter, 1886)
Phymosoma lacteum (Sluiter, 1886)
Phymosoma nigrescens ((Keferstein, 1865))
Phymosoma spengeli (Sluiter, 1886)
Phymosoma varians ((Keferstein, 1865))
Physcosoma duplicigranulatum ((Sluiter, 1886))
Physcosoma evisceratum (Lanchester, 1905)
Physcosoma extortum (Sluiter, 1902)
Physcosoma horsti (ten Broeke, 1925)
Physcosoma lacteum ((Sluiter, 1886))
Physcosoma minutum (ten Broeke, 1925)
Physcosoma nigrescens ((Keferstein, 1865))
Physcosoma spengeli ((Sluiter, 1886))
Physcosoma varians ((Keferstein, 1865))
Sipunculus plicatus (Quatrefages, 1865)
Sipunculus puntarenae ((Grnbe and Oersted, 1858))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma heronis (Edmonds, 1956)
Phascolosoma spinicauda ((Quatrefages, 1865))
Physcosoma stephensoni (Stephen, 1942)
Sipunculus spinicauda (Quatrefages, 1865)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Phascolosoma kapalum (Edmonds, 1985)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma
Subgenus
Phascolosoma

Synonyms

Aspidosiphon insularis (Lanchester, 1905)
Paraspidosiphon insularis ((Lanchester, 1905))
Phascolosoma dentigerum ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Phascolosoma microdentigerum ((ten Broeke, 1925))
Phascolosoma perlucens (Baird, 1868)
Phascolosoma spinosum (Johnson, 1971)
Phascolosoma thomense ((Augener, 1903))
Phascolosoma vermiculus ((Quatrefages, 1865))
Phymosoma dentigerum (Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883)
Physcosoma dentigerum ((Selenka and de Man in Selenka, de Man and Bnlow, 1883))
Physcosoma microdentigerum (ten Broeke, 1925)
Physcosoma thomense (Augener, 1903)
Sipunculus vermiculus (Quatrefages, 1865)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Sipuncula
Class
Phascolosomatidea
Order
Phascolosomatiformes
Family
Phascolosomatidae
Genus
Phascolosoma