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Phascolosoma nigrescens

Rodrigo Zorrilla Gonzalez (2014)


Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour

Reproduction & Development


Musculature and Movement

Anatomy & Physiology


Evolution & Systematics

Taxonomy and Synonyms

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

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Chapheau, M. (1928) Recherches sur la respiration des hematies du Siponcle. Bulletinde la station biologique d’Arcachon, 25, 157-197

Chen, Y., & Yeh, C. C. (1958). Notes on some Gephyrea of China with description of four new species. Acta Zoologica Sinica ,10(3), 266-278.

Cutler, E.B., (1973). Sipuncula of the western North Atlantic. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural Hstory. 152(3), 105-204.

Cutler, N. J., & Cutler, E. B. (1990). A revision of the subgenus Phascolosoma (Sipuncula: Phascolosoma). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 103(3), 691-730. 

Cutler, E. B. (Ed.). (1994). The Sipuncula:t heir systematics, biology, and evolution. Cornell University Press.

Cutler, E. B. (1968). A review of coral-inhabiting Sipuncula. In American Zoologist, 8(4), 796.

Edmonds, S. J. (1955). Australian Sipunculoidea. I. The Genera Sipunculus, Xenosiphon, and Siphonosoma. Marine and Freshwater Research6(1), 82-97.

Friesner, R. A., Baik, M.H., Gherman, B.F., Guallar, V., Wirstam, M., Murphy, R.B., & Lippard, S.J., (2003) How iron-containing proteins control dioxygen chemistry: a detailed atomic level description via accurate quantum chemical and mixed quantum mechanics/molecularmechanics calculations. CoordinationChemistry Reviews, 238, 267-290 

Hooper, S. L., Hobbs, K. H., & Thuma, J. B. (2008). Invertebrate muscles: thin and thick filament structure; molecular basis of contraction and its regulation, catch and asynchronous muscle. Progress in neurobiology, 86(2), 72-127.

Huang, D., J. Chen, J. Vannier & J I. Saiz Salinas. (2004) Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. Proceedings of the Royal Scoiety of London, Series B. 271, 1671-1676 

Hylleberg, J., & A. Nateewathana (1983) Effects of offshore tin mining on benthos of the west coast of Phuket, Thailand. Pacific Science Association, Fifteenth Congress Proceedings. 110-111

Hyman, L.H. (1959) The Invertebrates. Vol. 5: Smaller coelomate groups. New York: McGraw-Hill, 610-690

Jamieson, B. G. M. (Ed.). (1999). Reproductive biology of invertebrates (Vol. 9). Wiley.

Jones, I., and M. C. Schiess. (1975). The occurrence of some intestinal and coelomic parasites of Phascolosoma varians of PuertoRico. In M. E. Rice and M. Todorovic, eds., Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology of the Sipuncula and Echiura. Belgrade: Naucno Delo Press. 343- 34

Parker, J.G. (1980) Effects of pollution upon the benthos of Belfast Slough, Northern Ireland, U.K.. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 11(3), 80-83 

Peebles, F., & Fox, D. L. (1933). The structure, functions, and general reactions of the marine sipunculid worm Dendrostoma zostericola. University of California Press.

Pemberton, S. G., Kobluk, D. R., Yeo, R. K., & Risk, M. J. (1980). The boring Trypanites at the Silurian-Devonian disconformity in southern Ontario. Journal of Paleontology,1258-1266.

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Rice, M.E. (1973) Morphology, behavior, and histogenesis of the pelagosphera larva of Phascolosoma agassizii (Sipuncula). Smithsonian Contrib. Zool., 132, 1-51

Rice, M.E. (1975) Observations on the development of six species of Caribbean Sipuncula with a review of developmentin the phylum. Intern. Symp. Biol.Sipuncula and Echiura, 141-160 

Rice, M. E. (1976). Larval development and metamorphosis in Sipuncula. American Zoologist, 16(3), 563-571.

Rice, M. E. (1981). Larvae adrift: patterns and problems in life histories of sipunculans. American Zoologist, 605-619.

Rice, M.E. (1986) Factors influencing larval metamorphosis in Golfingia misakiana (Sipuncula). Bulletin of Marine Science, 39(2), 362-375

Rondeletti, G., (1555) Universae aquatilium Historiae pers altera, cum veris ipsorum Ima- ginibus. M. Bonhome. Lugduni. 222

Ruppert, E. E., Fox, R. S., & Barnes, R. D. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology Brooks. Cole, Belmont, CA, USA, 963.

Saiz Salinas, J. I. (1993). Fauna Ibérica. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, 200.

Scheltema, A.H. (1993) Aplacophora as progenica culiferans and the coelomate origin of mollusks as the sister taxon of Sipuncula. Biological Bulletin. 184,57-78

Schulze, A., Cutler, E. B., & Giribet, G.(2005). Reconstructing the phylogeny of the Sipuncula. In Morphology, Molecules, Evolution and Phylogeny in Polychaeta and Related Taxa, 277-296 

Schulze, A., & Rice, M. E. (2009). Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states. Evolution & development, 11(1), 97-108.

Stephen, A. C., & Edmonds, S. J. (1972). Phyla Sipuncula and Echiura.

The Atlas of Living Australia, (2014) Phascolosoma (Phascolosoma) nigrescens . Atlas of Living Australia. Accessed via

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Uexkull, J. von. (1903) Die biologische Bauplan von Sipunculus nudus. Zietschrift fur Biologie. 44, 269-344

Williams, J. A., & Margolis, S. V. (1974).Sipunculid burrows in coral reefs: evidence for chemical and mechanical excavation. Pacific Science, 28 (4) 357-359