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Pseudobiceros bedfordi (Laidlaw 1903)

Persian Carpet Flatworm

Cheryl Tan Kay Yin (2013)



Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour


Phototaxis Experiment


Feeding & Nutrition

Anatomy & Physiology

Skeletal System

Sensory System

Muscular System

Digestive System

Internal Transport System

Evolution & Systematics

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

References & Links

References & Links

  1. Arnqvist, G., & Rowe, L. (2005). Sexual Conflict: Sexual Conflict. Princeton University Press.
  2. Barnes, R.S.K. (1998). The Diversity of Living Organisms. Blackwell Publishing. pp.194–195.
  3. Bolanos, M. (2012). Marine flatworms - polycladidas. Retrieved from
  4. Coleman, N. (2008). Marine flatworms in focus - Neville Coleman. Retrieved from
  5. Eakin, R.M., Brandenburger, J.L. (1981). Fine structure of the eyes Pseudoceros Canadensis (Turbellaria, Polycladida) Zoomorphology, 98, 1.
  6. Goggin, C.L., Newman, L.J. (1996). Use of molecular data to discriminate pseudocerotid turbellarians. Journal of Helminthology70(2), 123-126.
  7. Litvaitis, L.M., Newman, L.J. (2001). A molecular framework for the phylogeny of the Pseudocerotidae (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida). Journal of Hydrobiologica, 444(1-3), 177-182.
  8. Morykwas, A. (2012). Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved from
  9. Michielis, N. (2006). Battle of the hermaphrodites" Retrieved from
  10. Newman, L.J. & L. R. G. Cannon. (1995). The importance of the fixation of colour,pattern and form in tropical Pseudocerotidae (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida). Journal of Hydrobiologia, 305, 141-143.
  11. Newman, L.J. & Cannon, L.R.G. (1997). Nine new Pseudobiceros (Platyhelminthes,Polycladida, Pseudocerotidae) from the Indo-Pacific. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 45, 341–368.
  12. Newman, L.J. & Cannon, L.R.G. (2003). Marine Flatworms: the world of polyclads. CSIRO Publishing : Melbourne 112 p
  13. Newman, L.J. and Schupp, P. (2002). A new species of pseudocerotid flatworm from (Platyhelminthes, Polycladida) from the Indo-Pacific. Micronesica, 34(2), 177-184.
  14. ​Ruppert, E.E, Fox R.S., Barnes R.B. (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: a functional evolutionary approach (7 th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks Cole Thomson.
  15. Seifarth, W. (2002). Marine flatworms of the world - anatomy of polyclad flatworms. Retrieved from
  16. Walker,J.C., & Anderson, D.T. (2001). The Platyhelminthes. In Anderson, D.T., Invertebrate Zoology. (2nd ed.). (pp. 58–80). Oxford University Press. 
  17. Whitfield, J. (2004). Everything you always wanted to know about sexes. PLoS Biol, 2(6), e183. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020183