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Reteporella graeffei
(Kirchenpauer, 1869)

Bridget Bradshaw (2013)



Fact Sheet



Physical Description


Life History & Behaviour


Development & Settlement

Anatomy & Physiology

Colony structure

Zooid structure

Food capture & Digestive system

Circulatory & Excretory system

Nervous & Sensory system

Evolution & Systematics


Fossil record

Biogeographic Distribution

Conservation & Threats

Future research

References & Links

References & Links

A glossary of helpful terms:

Works Cited

Barnes DKA, Clarke A (1998) Seasonality of polypide recycling and sexual reproduction in some erect Antarctic bryozoans. Mar Biol 131: 647-658.

Bishop JDD, Pemberton AJ (2006) The third way: spermcast mating in sessile marine invertebrates. Integr Comp  Biol 46: 398–406.

  • Bone K, Keough MJ (2010) Does Polymorphism Predict Physiological Connectedness? A Test Using Two Encrusting Bryozoans. Biol Bull 219: 220-230.
Burgess SC, Hart SP, Marshall DJ (2009) Pre-settlement behavior in larval bryozoans: the roles of larval age and size.  Biol Bull 216: 344-354.

Figuerola B, Ballesteros M, Avila C (2013) Description of a new species of Reteporella (Bryozoa: Phidoloporidae) from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) and the possible functional morphology of avicularia. Act Zool 94:66–73.

Fry WG (1965) Pycnogonids feeding on bryozoans. Bull Br Mus Nat Hist (Zool.) 12: 195-223.

Hao JS, Li CX, Sun XY, Yang Q (2005) Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of cheilostome bryozoans based on mitochondrial rrnL rRNA sequences. Chinese Sci Bull 50: 1205–121.

Hart MW, Byrne M, Smith MJ (1997) Molecular phylogenetic analysis of life-history evolution in asterinid starfish. Evol 51: 1848–1861.

Iyengar EV, Harvell CD (2002). “Specificity of cues inducing defensive spines in the bryozoan Membranipora membranacea”. Mar Ecol 225:205–218.

Jackson JB (1984) Ecology of cryptic coral reef communities.III. Abundance and aggregation of encrusting organisms with particular reference to cheilostome bryozoa.  J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 75: 37-57.

Jeffery CH, Emlet RB (2003) Macroevolutionary consequences of developmental mode in temnopleurid echinoids from the Tertiary of Southern Australia. Evol 57: 1031–1048.

Knight S, Gordon D, Lavery SD (2011) A multi-locus analysis of phylogenetic relationships within cheilostome bryozoans supports multiple origins of ascophoran frontal shields. Mol Phylogenet Evol 61:351–362.

Miller MC (1961) The food of nudibranchs. J Anim Ecol 30:95-116.

O’Dea A, Okamura B (1999) Influence of seasonal variation in temperature, salinity, and food availability on module size and colony growth in the estuarine bryozoan, Conopeum seurati. Mar Biol 135: 581–588.

Okamura B, Bishop JDD (1988) Zooid size in cheilostome bryozoans as an indicator of relative palaeotemperature. Palaeogeogr, Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol 66: 145–152.

Ostrovsky AN, Takashima R, Dick MH, Grischenko AV, NishiH, Mawatari SF (2006) First record of a Cretaceous cheilostome bryozoan from Hokkaido, Japan. Cretac Res 27: 859–862.

Pohowsky RA (1973) A Jurassic cheilostome from England. Liv  Foss Bryo: 447–461.

Ruppert EE, Fox RS, Barnes RD (2004) Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach. (7th Ed). Belmont, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole

Ryland JS (1963) The species of Haplopoma (Polyzoa). Sarsia 10: 9–18.

Ryland JS (1970) Bryozoans. London, UK: Hutchinson & Co.

Ryland JS, Hayward PJ (1977) British Anascan Bryozoans. Syn Brit Faun 10: 188.

Silén L (1966) Fertilization. Ophelia 3: 113-140.

Taylor PD (1994) An early cheilostome bryozoan from the Upper Jurassic of Yemen. Neues Jahrb Geol 191: 331–344.

Taylor PD (1988) Major radiation of cheilostome bryozoans: triggered by the evolution of a new larval type? Hist Biol 1: 45-64.

Tilbrook KJ, Hayward PJ, Gordon DP (2001) Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from Vanuatu. Zool J Linn Soc 131: 35–109.

Tilbrook KJ (2006) Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from the Solomon Islands. Santa Barbara Museum of natural history monographs 4. StudBiodivers Number 3: 1–386.

Tsyganov-Bodounov A, Hayward PJ, Porter JS, Skibinski DOF (2009) Bayesian phylogenetics of Bryozoa. Mol Phylogenet Evol 52: 904–910

Waeschenbach A, Taylor PD, Littlewood DTJ (2012) Amolecular phylogeny of bryozoans. Mol Phylogen Evol 62: 718–735.

Winston JE, Jackson JB (1984) Ecology of cryptic coral reef communiities. IV. Community development and life histories of encrusting cheilostome bryozoa. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 76: l-21.