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You are here:   animal list > Perinereis (Nereis) sp.

 

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Perinereis (Nereis) spp.

Ragworm


Gemma Churchill (2011)

 Nereis spp.

 

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Overview

Brief Summary


Comprehensive Description


Distribution


Physical Description

Size


Identification Resources


Ecology

Local Distribution and Habitats


Biogeographical Distribution


Micro-habitats and Associations


Crypsis


Life History & Behaviour

Behaviour


Cyclicity


Evolution & Systematics

Fossil History


Systematics or Phylogenetics


Morphology and Physiology

External Morphology


Internal Anatomy


Cell Biology


Molecular Biology & Genetics

Nucleotide Sequences


Molecular Biology


Conservation

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Content Summary

External Morphology

The body of a polychaete consists of three basic regions; the presegmental region (comprised of the prostomium and peristomium), the segmented body (including parapodia, chaetae and segmentally arranged internal organs) and the post-segmental pygidium (consisting of the mesodermal growth zones and the pygidial cirri). The body of Perenereis spp. is covered by a thin, flexible, external cuticle which is used for body support as well as for defence.
                               
                                

diagram sourced from Ruppert et al., 2004, pp. 424

  The head region of Perenereis spp. is very distinct. The head consists of two antennae, two palps, four ocelli (simple eyes) and four pairs of tentacular cirri. Although the palps and antennae may look similar in some species, the palps usually extend further forward, are located ventrally and have a more robust structure than antennae (Beesley et al., 2000). It is likely that the ocelli of this organism are capable of detecting light and it's direction but are unable to form definitive images. The tentacular cirri and tentacular palps have migrated from the prostomium, elongated and have assumed a feeding function. this progression can be observed during the process of anterior regeneration whereby anteriorly located parapodia migrate to the most anterior segment of the body and become specialised (for more information see ‘Cell Biology’). most of the appendages described above for the errant Perenereis are well-developed for a mobile existence and are not present or are considerably modified in tube-dwelling and entirely sedentary species.
  The pharynx of this species is tubular, muscular and eversible and contains a pair of stout jaws.
  The trunk of Perenereis can be extremely long and elongate. This species may reach up to 20 cm in intertidal environments (Beesley et al., 2000). Gills are not present in this species.
  Each segment of a polychate worm has a single pair of parapodia. Each parapodia consists of an upper notopodium and a lower or ventral neuropodium. Both of these are supported by an internal chitinous rod – the aciculum. Muscles attach to these skeletal rods to attain movement. Two sensory cirri project from both the dorsal and ventral surface of the notopodium and neuropodium respectively.
  One pair of pygidial cirri located at the furthermost posterior region of the body on the pygidium.

Parapodia may be apparent in various forms in different species based on their environmental ecology and the structure of individual parapodia changes from the anterior to posterior regions of the organism. 

 Anterior parapodia
 Mid-section parapodia
 Posterior parapodia

 

Nereis spp. has three fleshy divisions of the parapodium. The aciculi are visible under a high-powered dissecting microscope. Bundles of chaetae protrude from the parapodia to improve the polychate's grip on the substratum. The tips of the chaetae have been modified by individuals for various functions. Shapes include hooks, needles and serrated ends for gripping the substrate or paddle-like for digging and swimming. The chaetae shape of the Perenereis spp. were not visible under the dissecting microscope. The parapodia and mouthparts are commonly used to identify polychaete species.

Segments form sequentially during development and can be added throughout the life of the polychaete although some have a maximum number of segments which can be acquired. The growth zones are located in the post-segmental pygidium. New segments are produced on the anterior region of the pygidium and thus the youngest part of the body is the most posterior segment (Schroeder & Hermans, 1975).

Classification

Minimize
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Siphonaptera
Superfamily
Pygiopsylloidea
Family
Pygiopsyllidae
Genus
Acanthopsylla
Species
rothschildi

Common Names

blokha
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Lepidoptera
Superfamily
Gracillarioidea
Family
Gracillariidae
Genus
Acrocercops

Synonyms

Acrocercops fluorescens ((Turner, 1894))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Odonata
Family
Libellulidae
Genus
Agrionoptera
Species
insignis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Lepidoptera
Superfamily
Geometroidea
Family
Geometridae
Genus
Chloroclystis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Odonata
Family
Platycnemididae
Genus
Coeliccia
Species
membranipes
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Lepidoptera
Superfamily
Geometroidea
Family
Geometridae
Genus
Dioscore
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Mammalia
Order
Carnivora
Family
Mustelidae
Genus
Enhydra
Species
lutris

Synonyms

Latax lutris nereis (Merriam, 1904)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Aves
Order
Procellariiformes
Family
Hydrobatidae
Genus
Garrodia

Common Names

Grey-backed Storm Petrel
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Lepidoptera
Superfamily
Bombycoidea
Family
Saturniidae
Genus
Melanocera
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Insecta
Order
Hemiptera
Superfamily
Membracoidea
Family
Cicadellidae
Genus
Navaia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Ceratonereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Herfriedia
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Leptonereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neanthes
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neanthes
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neanthes
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neanthes
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neanthes
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neanthes
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neanthes

Synonyms

Nereis operta (Stimpson, 1856)
Nereis polyodonta (Schmarda, 1861)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neonereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Neonereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Nereis

Synonyms

Nereis gilchristi (Day, 1967)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Subgenus
Perinereis

Synonyms

Nereis heterodonta ((Schmarda, 1861))
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis

Synonyms

Nereis abyssicola (Horst, 1924)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis

Synonyms

Lycoris aegyptia (Savigny in Lamarck, 1818)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis

Synonyms

Nereis amoyensis (Treadwell, 1936)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis

Synonyms

Nereilepas angusta (Kinberg, 1866)
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Annelida
Class
Polychaeta
Order
Phyllodocida
Family
Nereididae
Genus
Nereis