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You are here:   animal list > Gomophia watsoni




Gomophia watsoni Livingstone 1936

Watson's Seastar

Shan Marshall (2011)



Fact Sheet


Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description

Physical Description

Appearance & Size


Habitat & Micro-habitats


Life History & Behaviour



Morphology and Physiology

External Morphology

Internal Anatomy

Tube Feet

Adhesion, Locomotion & Analysis



References & More Information



Bryan, P.J., McClintock, J.B., Hopkins, T.S. 1997. Structural and chemical defences of echinoderms from the northern Gulf of Mexico. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 210, 173-186.

Carvalho, A.L.P.S., Ventura, C.R.R. 2002. The reproductive cycle of Asterina stellifera (Mobius) (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Cabo Frio region, southeastern Brazil. Marine Biology, 141, 947-954.

Crump, R.G., Barker, M.F. 1985. Sexual and asexual reproduction in geographically separated populations of the fissiparous asteroid Coscinasterias calamaria (Gray). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 88, 109-127.

Drolet, D., Himmelman, J.H., Rochette, R. 2004. Use of refuges by the ophiuroid Ophiopholis aculeata: contrasting effects of substratum complexity on predation risk from two predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 284, 183-2004.

Engster, M.S., Brown, S.C. 1972. Histology and ultrastructure of the tube foot epithelium in the Phanerozonian starfish, Astropecten. Tissue and Cell, 4, 503-518.

Ferguson, J.C. 1995. The structure and mode of function of the water vascular system of a brittlestar, Ophioderma appressum. Biological Bulletin, 188, 98-110.

Haramoto, S., Komatsu, M., Yamazaki, Y. 2007. Patterns of asexual reproduction in the fissiparous seastar Coscinasterias acutispina (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) in Japan. Zoological Science, 24, 1075-1081.

Harrison, G., Philpott, D. 1966. Subcellular particles in Echinoderm tube feet 1. Class Asteroidea. Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 16, 537-547.

Hickman Jnr, C.P., Roberts, L.S., Keen, S.L., I’Anson, H., Eisenhour, D.J. 2004. Integrated Principles of  Zoology, 14th ed, McGraw-Hill, United States, pp. 475-480.

Kurihara, T. 1998. Negative phototaxis in the sea star Asterina pectinifera (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the field. Asian Marine Biology, 15, 159-167.

Lambert, A., De Vos, L., Jangoux, M. 1984. Functional morphology of the pedicellariae of the asteroid Marthasterias glacialis (Echinodermata). Zoomorphology, 104, 122-130.

Lares, M.T., Lawrence, J.M. 1994. Nutrient and energy allocation during arm regeneration in Echinaster paucispinus (Clark)(Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 180, 49-58.

Lawrence, J.M., Klinger, T.S., McClintock, J.B., Watts, S.A., Chen, C.P., Marsh, A., Smith, L. 1986. Allocation of nutrient resources to body components by regenerating Luidia clathrata (Say)(Echinodermata: Asteroidea). The Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 102, 47-53.

Ottesen, P.O., Lucas, J.S. 1982. Divide or broadcast: interrelation of asexual and sexual reproduction in a population of the fissiparous hermaphroditic seastar Nepanthia belcheri (Asteroidea: Asterinidae). Marine Biology, 69, 223-233.

Pomory, C.M., Lares, M.T. 2000. Rate of regeneration of two arms in the field and its effect on body components in Luidia clathrata (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 254, 211-220.

Rowe, F.W.E., Richmond, M.D. 2004. A preliminary account of the shallow-water echinoderms of Rodriguez, Mauritius, western Indian Ocean. Journal of Natural History, 38, 3273-3314.

Rubilar, T., Pastor de Ward, C.T., Diaz de Vivar, M.E. 2005. Sexual and asexual reproduction of Allostichaster capensis (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in Golfo Nuervo. Marine Biology, 146, 1083-1090.

Rubilar, T., Villares, G., Epherra, L., Diaz de Vivar, M.E., Pastor de Ward, C.T. 2011. Fission, regeneration, gonad production and lipids storage in the pyloric caeca of the sea star Allostichaster capensis. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, In Press.

Ruppert, E.E., Fox, R.S., Barnes, R.D. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach. 7 ed., Brookes/Cole, California, USA.

Santos, R., Gorb, S., Jamar, V., Flammang, P. 2005. Adhesion of echinoderm tube feet to rough surfaces. Journal of Experimental Biology, 208, 2555-2567.

Santos, R., Haesaerts, D., Jangoux, M., Flammang, P. 2005. Comparative histological and immunohistochemical study of sea star tube feet (Echinodermata, Asteroidea). Journal of Morphology, 263, 259-269.

Thomas, L.A., Hermans, C.O. 1985. Adhesive interactions between the tube feet of a starfish, Leptasterias hexactis, and the substrata. The Biological Bulletin, 169, 675-688.

Vickery, M.S., McClintock, J.B. 2000. Comparative morphology of the tube feet among the Asteroidea: phylogenetic implications. American Zoology, 40, 355-364.