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You are here:   animal list > Stichopus chloronotus




Stichopus chloronotus

Brandt, 1835


Rachel Hengst (2011)



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Brief Summary

Physical Description

Size and Appearance


Distribution and Habitats



Life History & Behaviour

General Behaviour

Feeding and Predation

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Evolution & Systematics


Morphology and Physiology

External Morphology

Internal Anatomy

Cell Biology


Nucleotide Sequences


Threats and Conservation


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Names & Taxonomy

Related Names

External Morphology


           Although Stichopus chloronotus is called the Greenfish and is dark green in colour (Baker 1929), it frequently appears to be black. It is quadrangular in transverse section and has papillae along the angles of its shape (Baker 1929). The integument is thick and smooth, and the dermis is made up of multiple layers including a superficial zone, a middle zone of collagen fibres, and a hypodermis (Menton and Eisen 1970). Although they generally feel soft, the body wall can harden and make the animal quite stiff (Motokawa 1982). This is achieved through modifications in the chemical properties of the mutable collagenous tissue, which are then reflected in the mechanical properties of the dermis (Motokawa 1982). The stiffening and softening agents used in this process are found in the coelomic fluid and are activated when the dermis is stimulated (Motokawa 1982). Tube feet are found on the dorsal surface of the body and are used for walking. The feeding tentacles are leaf shaped, as is characteristic of the Stichopodidae family (Edgar 2008). The feeding tentacles are actually modified tube feet (Edgar 2008), and there are 20 present around the mouth (Conand et al. 2008). The average length of the feeding tentacles is approximately 5 mm (Conand et al. 1998). These feeding tentacles are used to collect sediment and bring it to the mouth (Conand et al. 1998).

Image 1: Shown here are the orange-tipped papillae of Stichopus chloronotus.

Image 2: The papillae and wrinkled-looking dermis of S. chloronotus.
Image 3: The tube feet of S. chloronotus. They are able to stretch, break off, and be regenerated.
Image 4: The feeding tentacles of S. chloronotus. Although they are extended when feeding, generally these tentacles are gathered up so that they are not seen.
Image 5: The anterior (head) end of Stichopus chloronotus. Visible are the papillae, tube feet, and feeding tentacles.
Image 6: The tube feet of Stichopus chloronotus can be used to hold onto hard surfaces, as shown in this image. They can also break off if stretched too far (bottom right of image), but they are later regenerated.