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You are here:   animal list > Herdmania momus



Fact Sheet


Brief Summary

Physical Description


Identification Resources


Local Distribution and Habitats

Biogeographical Distribution

Micro-habitats and Associations


Life History & Behaviour



Settlement Induction

Evolution & Systematics

Fossil History

Systematics or Phylogenetics

Morphology and Physiology

External Morphology

Internal Anatomy

Molecular Biology & Genetics

Nucleotide Sequences

Molecular Biology




Names & Taxonomy


Common Names


Berking, S, Herrmann, K 1990, Diaprylolglycerol and ammonium ions induce metamorphosis of ascidian larvae.Roux’s Arch Dev Biol vol. 198 pp. 430–432

Berrill, NJ 1975, Chordata: Tunicata. Pages 241-282 In Reproduction of marine invertebrates, volume 2. Entoprocts and lesser coelomates (A. C. Giese and J. S. Pearse, eds.) Academic Press, New York.

Cloney, RA 1961, Observations on the mechanism of tail resorption in ascidians. American Zoologist vol. 1 pp. 67–87

Degnan, BM 2001, Settlement and metamorphosis of the tropical ascidian Herdmania curvata. In: H. Sawada, H. Yokosawa and C.C. Lambert, The Biology of Ascidians. The First International Symposium on the Biology of Ascidians, Sapporo, Japan, (258-263). 26-30 June, 2000.

Degnan, BM & Johnson, CR 1999, Inhibition of Settlement and Metamorphosis of the Ascidian Herdmania curvata by Non-Geniculate Coralline Algae. Bioogical Bulletin, vol. 197, pp. 332-340.

Degnan, BM, Souter, D, Degnan, SM & Long, SC 1997, Induction of metamorphosis with potassium ions requires development of competence and an anterior signalling centre in the ascidian Herdmania momus. Developmental Genes and Evolution, vol. 206, pp. 370-376.

Degnan, BM, Rohde, PR, Lavin, MF 1996, Normal development and embryonic gene activity of the ascidian Herdmania momus. Marine and Freshwater Research, vol. 47, pp. 543-551.

Degnan, BM 1991, ‘The ascidian Herdmania momus as an experimental model for molecular studies in development and evolution’, PhD thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.

Edgar, GJ 2008, Australian Marine Life: the plants and animals of temperate waters, 2nd edn, New Holland Publishers, Australia.

Edward, RE, Fox, RS, Barnes

Green, KM, Russell, BD, Clark, RJ, Jones, MK, Garson, MJ, Skilleter, GA, Degnan, BM 2002, Sponge allelochemical induces ascidian settlement but inhibits metamorphosis.  Mar Biol 140, 355-363

Jackson, DL, Leys, SP, Hinman, VF, Woods, R, Lavin, MF & Degnan, BM 2002, Ecological Regulation of Development: Induction of Marine Invertebrate Metamorphosis. International  Journal of Developmental Biology,vol. 46, pp. 679-686.

Lambert, G & Lambert, CC 1987, Spicule formation in the solitary ascidian, Herdmania momus. Journal of Morphology, vol. 192, pp. 145-159.

Lynch, WF 1961, Extrinsic factors influencing metamorphosis in bryozoan and ascidian larvae. American Zoologistvol. 1 pp. 59–66

Mather, P & Bennet, I 1993, A Coral Reef Handbook: a guide to the geology, flora and fauna of the Great Barrier Reef, 3rd edn, Surrey Beatty & Sons Pty Limited, Australia.

Patricolo, E, Ortolani G & Casico A 1981, The effect of L-thyroxine on metamorphosis of Ascidia malacaCell Tissue Res vol. 214, pp. 289–301

Rieger, RM 1994, The biphasic life-cycle - a central theme of metazoan evolution. American Zoologist, vol. 34, pp. 484–491.

Ruppert, EE, Fox, RS, Barnes, RD 2004 Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach, 7th edn, Brooks/Cole, USA.   

Williams, EA, Craigie, A, Yeates, A & Degnan, SM 2008, Articulated coralline algae of the genus Amphiroa are highly effective natural inducers of settlement in the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Biological Bulletin, vol. 215, pp. 98–107.

Shenkar, N & Loya, Y 2008, The solitary ascidian Herdmania momus: native (Red Sea) versus non-indigenous (Mediterranean) populations. Biological Invasions, vol. 10, pp. 1431-143.