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You are here:   animal list > Holothuria impatiens



Holothuria impatiens (Forskal 1775)

The Impatient Sea Cucumber

Olivia Degn (2011)



Fact Sheet


Comprehensive Description

Physical Description


Identification Resources

Colour and Texture


Local Distribution and Habitats

Biogeographical Distribution

Micro-habitats and Associations


Nocturnal Activity & Micro-Habitat Preference

Life History & Behaviour


Defense Mechanisms

Diet and Feeding

Reproduction and Life Cycle

Evolution & Systematics

Fossil History


Morphology and Physiology

External Morphology

Internal Anatomy




Additional Information




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Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan

echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 3–220.


Cannon, L.R.G. and Silver, H. 1986. Sea Cucumbers of Northern Australia. Queensland Museum, South Brisbane, Australia, 60 pp.


Clark, A.M. and Rowe, F.W.E. 1971. 'Monograph of shallow water Indo-west Pacific Echinoderms.' (London:British Museum).


Clark, H.L. 1921. The Echinoderm Fauna of Torres Strait: its composition and its origin. Papers from the Department of Marine Biology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 10: 1-223.


Clark, H.L. 1938. Echinoderms from Australia. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of the Harvard College 55: 1-596.


Domantay, J.S. 1954. Some holothurians from Guam and vicinity. Nat. Appl. Sci. Bull.Univ. Philipp. 12:336-357.


Forskål, P. 1775. Descriptiones animalium, 199 pp.


Gilliland, P. M. 1993. The skeletal morphology, systematics and evolutionary history of holothurians. Special Papers in Palaeontology 47: 1-147


Gmelin, J.F. 1791. Linné: Systema Naturae, ed. 13, vol. 1, Zoology, pt. 6, pp. 3138-3143, 3160-3201.


Hyman, L. H. 1955. The Invertebrates. Vol. 4. Echinodermata. New York: McGraw Hill.


James, D.B. 2001 "Holothuria impatiens" (On-line), Sealife Base Species Summary. Accessed May 27, 2011


Kerr, A. 2000. Evolution and Systematics of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata). Thesis, Yale University.


Kerr, A.M. 2003. Holothuroidea (Sea Cucumbers). In Grzimek’s Animal Life Encyclopedia. Second Edition. Volume I. Lower Metazoans and Lesser Deuterostomes, ed. D. Thoney, 417–431. New York: Gale Group Publishers.


Kotpal, R. L. 2009 Modern Text Book of Zoology: Invertebrates. Rastogi Publications. p. 184. ISBN 9788171339037.


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Pearson, J. 1914. Proposed reclassification of the genera Mülleria and Holothuria. Spolia zeylan. 9:163-172.


Reich, M (30–31 January 2006). Lefebvre, B.; David, B.; Nardin, E. & Poty, E.. ed. "Cambrian holothurians ? – The early fossil record and evolution of Holothuroidea". Journées Georges Ubaghs (Dijon, France: Université de Bourgogne): 36–37.


Rowe F.W.E and Doty, J.E. 1977. The shallow water holothurians of Guam. Micronesica 13: 217-50.


Rowe, F.W.E. 1969. A review of the family Holothuriidae (Holothurioidea Aspidochirotida). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) (Zoology) 18: 119-70.


Ruppert, E. E., Fox, R. S., & Barnes, R. D. (2004). Invertebrate zoology: a functional evolutionary approach. Belmont, CA: Thomas-Brooks/Cole.


Smiley, S., F. S. McEuen, S. Chaffee, and S. Krishnan. 1991. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea. In: Giese, A. C., J. S. Pearse, and V. B. Pearse, eds. Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates. Volume 6. Pacific Grove, California: Boxwood Press, 663-750.


Smiley, S. 1994. Holothuroidea. In: Harrison, F. W. and F.-S. Chia, eds. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 14. Echinodermata. New York: Wiley-Liss, 401-471.


Smith, A. B. 1997. Echinoderm larvae and phylogeny. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 219-241.


Vanden Berghe and Hansson. "Holothuria impatiens" (On-line), Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed May 27, 2011