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You are here:   animal list > Pinctada margaritifera




Pinctada margaritifera

Black lipped pearl oyster

Megan Van Dyk (2011)




Fact Sheet


Brief Summary

Comprehensive Description


Physical Description

Identification Resources


Disease and Predation


Environmental Factors

Reproduction and Development

Sexual Morphology and Physiology

Spawning Seasonality

Larval Development

Evolution & Systematics

Fossil History


Morphology and Physiology

External Form and Function

Internal Anatomy and Function



Feeding Rate

Respiration and Gas Exchange

Molecular Biology & Genetics

Molecular Biology

Nucleotide Sequence

Pearl Aquaculture

Economics and Pearl Farming

Pearl Production and Formation


References & More Information

Content Partners


Biomedical Terms

Names & Taxonomy

Related Names


Common Names

Page Statistics

Content Summary


Alagarswami, K, 1970, ‘Pearl culture in Japan. Lessons for India’, Proceedings of the symposium on molluska, Marine Biological Association, India, pp. 975–998.

Allen, A. W 1906, ‘ Some notes on the life history of Margarita panasesae’, Journal of Linnean society zoology, vol 29, pp. 410-413.

Cahn, A 1949, Pearl culture in Japan, Fish and Wildlife Services fishery leaflet no. 357, United States Department of the Interior.

Crossland, C 1957, ‘ The cultivation of the mother pearl oyster in the Red Sea’, Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Resources, vol 8, pp. 111-130

Curry, J. D & Brear, K 1984, ‘ Fatigue fracture of mother of pearl and its significance for predatory techniques’, Journal of Zoology, vol. 204, pp. 541-548.

Farn, A.C 1986, Pearls: natural, cultured and imitation, Buttersworth Gem Books, London.

Garcia-Gasca, A, Ochoa-Baez, R.I & Betancourt, M 1994, ‘Microscopic anatomy of the mantle of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica’ Journal of Shellfish Research, vol 13, pp. 85–91.

Hwang, J.J, Yamakawa, T & Aoki, I 2007, ‘Growth of wild pearl oysters Pinctada fucata, Pinctada margaritifera and Pinctada sugillata (Bivalvia: Pteriidae) in Taiwan’ Fisheries Science, vol 73, pp. 132-141.

Lintilhac, J 1985, The Black Peals of Tahiti, South Pacific Publishing, Papeete.

Love, G & Langenkamp, D 2003, Australian Aquaculture: Industry Profiles for Selected Species, ABARE eReport no3, vol 8, Fisheries Research Fund, Canberra.

McClure, H.A & Vita-Finzi, C 1982, ‘Holcene shorlines and tectonic movements in eastern Saidi Arabia’, Tectonophysics, vol 85, pp. 37-43.

Martínez-Fernández, E, Acosta-Salmón, H & Southgate, P.C 2006, ‘The nutritional value of seven species of tropical microalgae for black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera, L.) larvae’, Aquaculture, vol 257, pp. 491–503.

Nasr, D.H 1984, ‘Feeding and growth of the pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera in Dongonab Bay, Sudan, Red Sea’, Hydrobiologia, vol. 110, pp. 241- 246.

Nayar, N.K & Mahadvan, S 1987, ‘ Ecology of pearl oyster beds’, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, vol 39, pp. 29-36.

Pit, J.H & Southgate, P.C 2003, ‘Fouling and predation: how do they affect growth and survival of the black- lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, during nursery culture?’ Aquaculture International, vol 11, pp. 545–555.

Pouvreau, S, Jonquieres, G & Buestel, D 1999, ‘Filtration by the pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera, under conditions of low seston load and small particle size in a tropical lagoon habitat’ Aquaculture, vol 176, pp. 295–314.

Reed, W 1966, ‘Cultivation of the black-lipped pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera’ Journal of Conchology, vol 26, pp. 26-32. 

Saville-Kent, W 1972, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia: its products and potentialities, John Currey, O'Neil, Melbourne.

Southgate, P.C & Lucas, J.S 2008, The Pearl Oyster, Elsevier Science, London.

Tanaka, Y, Inoha, S, Kakazu, K 1970, ‘Studies on seed production of black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, in Okinawa’ Bulletin of Tokai Regional Fisheries Research Laboratory, vol, 63, pp. 97–106.

Thielley, M, Weppe, M & Herbaut, C 1993, ‘Ultrastructural study of gametogenesis in the French Polynesian Black pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera’ Journal of Shellfish Research, vol 12, pp. 41–47.

Tranter, D.J 1958, ‘Reproduction in Australian pearl oysters (Lamellibranchia)’ Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Resources, vol 9, pp. 135-143.

Ward, J.E & Shumway, S.E 2004, ‘Separating the grain from the chaff: particle selection in suspension and deposit feeding bivalves’ Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol 300, pp. 83–103.

Yukihira, H, Lucas, J.S, Klumpp, D.W 2000, ‘Comparative effects of temperature on suspension feeding and energy budgets of the pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera and P. maxima’ Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol 195, pp. 179–188.