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You are here:   animal list > Planaxis sulcatus



Planaxis sulcatus (Born, 1778)

Furrowed Clusterwink

Terence Tan (2011)


Fact Sheet


Brief Summary

Common Names

Comprehensive Description

Biogeographical Distribution

Physical Description and Morpholgy

Features of a Planaxid Shell


Shell Morphology

External Anatomy

Internal Anatomy


Evolution & Systematics

Fossil History



Local Distribution and Habitats

Micro-habitats and Associations

Life History & Behaviour

Larval Development

Reproductive Behaviour

Locomotion and Foraging Behaviour

Predator Avoidance and Escape Behaviour


Trends and Threats

References & More Information


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Trends and Threats

At present, threats pertaining to the species Planaxis sulcatus has not yet been evaluated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). However, pollution of the marine environment due to anthropogenic activities could potentially pose a threat to the survivability of P. sulcatus in the future despite its abundance and broad biogeographical distribution.

Pollution of coastal marine environment due to anthropogenic activities including extensive shipping activities, industrial discharge and dumping of waste materials into the coastal waters is of a major global concern due to the devastating effects of high levels of contaminants in the marine environment, that is still growing at an alarming rate (Sarkar et al. 2006). The occurrence of highly persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo–dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzo–furans (PCDF), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), tributyltin (TBT) and toxic heavy metals (i.e. Cu, Pb, Ag etc) in the marine coastal environment, have become a major threat to the health of the marine ecosystem due to accumulation of toxic pollutant residues in the tissues of various marine animal species, including that of that P. sulcatus (Sarkar et al. 2006). DNA integrity of P. sulcatus has been observed to deteriorate significantly in areas severely contaminated with marine pollutants (Sarkar et al. 2006).

Over long periods of exposure to increasing levels of toxic persistent marine pollutants, the deterioration of DNA integrity in populations of P. sulcatus globally, as concentrations of contaminants in the marine environment continue growing at alarming rates, will potentially threaten the survivability of the species.