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You are here:   animal list > Spirobranchus giganteus




Spirobranchus sp.

Christmas Tree Worm

Christopher De Martini (2011)


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Butman, C. A.; Grassle J. P.; Webb C. M. (1988). Substrate choices made by marine larvae settling in still water and in a flume flow. Nature 333: 771–773.


Ben-Tzvi, O., E. Brokovich, et al. (2006). "A beneficial association between a polychaete worm and a scleractinian coral?" Coral Reefs 25(1): 98-98.


Conlin, B. E. (1989). Aspects of habitat selection by a tropical serpulid polychaete Spirobranchus giganteus (Pallas). Canada, McGill University (Canada). McGill University (Canada).


Cronin, S. (2002). Spatial distribution and larval biology of Spirobranchus giganteus. Santa Cruz, UCSC.


DK (2010). "Christmas Tree Worm Spirobranchus giganteus." Marine Wildlife Encyclopedia. Retrieved 26/10/2011, from

Gripp, R. (2008). Christmas Tree Worms (Spirobranchus giganteus) guide. Reef Builders. URL: (Accessed 26/10/11)           

Marsden, J. R. (1984). "Swimming in response to light by larvae of the tropical serpulid <i>Spirobranchus giganteus</i&gt." Marine Biology 83(1): 13-16.


Marsden, J. R. (1986). "Response to light by trochophore larvae of <i>Spirobranchus giganteus</i&gt." Marine Biology 93(1): 13-16.


Marsden, J. R. (1987). "Coral preference behaviour by planktotrophic larvae of <i>Spirobranchus giganteus corniculatus</i> (Serpulidae: Polychaeta)." Coral Reefs 6(2): 71-74.


Nakamura T, Y. H., Van Woesik R (2003). "Water flow facilitates recovery from bleaching in the coral Stylophorapistillata." Mar Ecol Prog Ser 256: 287-291.


Nishi, E. N., M. (1999). "Use of annual density banding to estimate longevity of infauna of massive corals." Fish. Sci. 65: 48 - 56.


Qian, P.-Y. (1999). "Larval settlement of polychaetes." Hydrobiologia 402(0): 239-253.


Rowley, S. (2008). "A critical evaluation of the symbiotic association between tropical tube-dwelling Polychaetes and their Hermatypic coral hosts, with a focus on Spirobranchus giganteus (Pallas, 1766)." The Plymouth Student Scientist 1(2): 335-353.


Rupert E. E., F. R. R., Barnes R. D.  (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A functional approach USA, Thomson Learning: 27.


Smith, R. (1984). "Devleopment of settling and Spirobranchus giganteus (Polychaete; Serpulidae)." Proc. First Int. Polycheate Con. Sydney: 461-483.

Strathmann, R. R., R. A. Cameron, et al. (1984). "Spirobranchus giganteus (Pallas) breaks a rule for suspension-feeders." Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 79(3): 245-249.