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You are here:   animal list > Strombus luhuanus


 Strombus luhuanus, Linnaeus 1758
      Strawberry Stromb

Patrick Horgan (2011)

Fact Sheet


Brief Summary


Physical Description


Identification Resources


Local Distribution and Habitats


Life History & Behaviour

Defensive Responses



Reproduction and Larval Biology


Evolution & Systematics

Fossil History


Morphology and Physiology

External Morphology



Threats from Humans

References & More Information


Names & Taxonomy

Related Names and Synonyms

Defensive Responses


When threatened, S. luhuanus has three methods of defense to react to predators/threats. The first method is for it to withdraw into its shell with the operculum covering the shell aperture (Berg, 1974). The second method is for the individual to 'kick' at the predator, which pushes itself away from it, and can be observed when handling the inidividual (video 1). However, this kick breaking the grasp of a predator has not been observed and is thought to be quite innefective as the predator can hold the shell in place while manipulating it (Berg, 1974).

Video 1: The defensive 'kick' that a stromb performs when being handled 

The third defense response has been studied in more detail. Berg (1974) studied the escape response in S. luhuanus when a molluscivorous cone shell was placed in front of it. He broke the reponses to this stimuli into three parts:

1. Tentacular wave. This was the initial response, where the individuals tentacles on the eyestalks started beating rapidly in all directions. When this response initiated in S. luhuanus individuals, the tentacular wave increased from 3 to 32 beats min-1.

2. Backward flip. This was the next response, where the foot and operculum were pushed forcefully into the substratum, causing the individual to be pushed backwards and away from the cone shell (figure 1). S. luhuanus individuals would backward flip an average of 2.4 times in the experiments before performing the final response.

   Figure 1: The backward flip response that S. luhuanus individuals displayed when confronted with a molluscivorous cone shell. Figure adapted from Berg (1974)  

3. Run. This was the final response, where the propodium (foot) was thrown to the side, causing the individual to turn around, and then the individual 'ran' away in a series of fast leaps until it was at a safe distance from the cone shell (figure 2). The rate of 'running' in S. luhuanus individuals was 23.8cm min-1, and was much faster compared to normal locomotion, which was 1.9cm min-1

   Figure 2: The run response that S. luhuanus individuals displayed when confronted with a molluscivorous cone shell. The lines represent paths that the individuals took to evade the cone shell. Figure adapted from Berg (1974)