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You are here:   animal list > Botryllus schlosseri




Botryllus schlosseri (Pallus 1766)

 The Star Ascidian

Dylan Moffitt (2011)




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Ben-Shlomo, R., U. Motro, G. Paz & B. Rinkevich. 2008. Pattern of settlement and natural chimerism in the colonial urochordate, Botryllus schlosseri. Genetica, 132: 51-58

Brunetti, R., L. Beghi, M. Bressan & M. G. Marin. 1980. Combined Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Colonies of Botryllus schlosseri and Botfylloides leachi (Ascidiacea) from the Venetian Lagoon. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2: 303-314

Carver, C.E., A.L. Mallet and B. Vercaemer. 2006b. Biological Synopsis of the colonial tunicates, Botryllus schlosseri and Botrylloides violaceus. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2747: v + 42 p.


Chadwick-Furman, N. E. & I. L. Weissman. 1995. Life Histories and Senescence of Botryllus schlosseri (Chordata, Ascidiacea) in Monterey Bay. The Biological Bulletin, 189: 36-41


Cima, F., L. Manni, G. Basso, E. Fortunato, B. Accordi, F. Schiavon & L. Ballarin. 2010. Hovering between death and life: natural apoptosis and phagocytes in the blastogenetic cycle of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 34: 272-285


Epelbaum, A., L. M. Herborg, T. W. Therriault, & C. M. Pearce. 2009a. Temperature and salinity effects on growth, survival, reproduction and potential distribution of two non-indigenous botryllid ascidians in British Columbia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 369: 43-52


Epelbaum, A., C. M. Pearce, D. J. Barker, A. Paulson & T. W. Therriault. 2009b. Susceptibility of non-indigenous ascidian species in British Columbia (Canada) to invertebrate predation. Marine Biology, 156: 1311-1320


Hickman, C. P., L. S. Roberts, S. L. Keen, A. Larson, H. l'Anson and D. J. Eisenhour. 2008. Integrated Principles of Zoology 14th ed., p.502-504. McGraw Hill: New York


Kürn, U., S. Rendulic, S. Tiozzo, R. J. Lauzon. 2011. Asexual propogation and regeration in colonial ascidians. Biology Bulletins, 221: 43-61


Lauzon, R. J., S. J. Kidder & P. Long. 2007. Suppression of programmed cell death regulates the cyclical degeneration of organs in a colonial urochordate. Developmental Biology, 301: 92-105


Lesser, M. P., S. E. Shumway, T. Cucci & J. Smith. 1992. Impact of fouling organisms on mussel rope culture: interspecific competition for food among suspension feeding invertebrates. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 165: 91-102


López-Legentil, S., X Turon & S. Planes. 2006. Genetic structure of the star sea squirt, Botryllus schlosseri, introduced in southern European harbours. Molecular Ecology, 15: 3957-3967


Morris, R. H., D. P. Abbott & E. C. Haderlie. 1980. Intertidal invertebrates of California, p. 204. Stanford University Press, viewed 24 October 2011:



Mukai, H., K. Sugimoto & Y. Taneda. 1978. Comparative studies on the circularatory system of the compound ascidians, Botryllus, Botrylloides and Symplegma. Journal of Morphology, 157: 49-78


Mukai, H. 1977. Comparative studies on the structure of reproductive organs of four botryllid ascidians. Journal of Morphology, 152: 363-380


Mukai, H. & H. Watanabe. 1976. Studies on the formation of germ cells in a compound ascidian Botryllus primigenus Oka. Journal of Morphology, 148:337-362

NIMPIS 2011, Botryllus schlosseri reproduction and habitat, National Introduced Marine Pest Information System, viewed 27 October 2011: <>


NIMPIS 2011, Botryllus schlosseri feeding and predators, National Introduced Marine Pest Information System, viewed 27 October 2011: <>.

Rinkevich, B., A. Rosner, C. Rabinowitz, Z. Lapidot, E. Moiseeva & B. Rinkevich. 2010. Piwi positive cells that line the vasculature epithelium, underlie whole body regeneration in a basal chordate. Developmental Biology, 345: 94-104

Rinkevich, B., R. Borat & M. Goren. 1998. Ecological and life history characteristics of Botryllus schlosseri (Tunicata) populations inhabiting undersurface shallow-water stones. Marine Ecology, 19: 129-145

Satoh, N. & W. R. Jeffery. 1995. Chasing tails in ascidians: developmental insights into the origin and evolution of chordates. Trends in Genetics, 11: 354-359


Scofield, V. L., J. M. Schlumpberger & I. L. Weissman. 1982. Colony specificity in the colonial tunicate Botryllus and the origins on vertebrate immunity. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 22: 783-794

Yund, P. O. & P. G. O. O'Neill. 2000. Microgeographis genetic differentiation in a colonial ascidian (Botryllus schlosseri) population. Marine Biology, 137: 583-588


Zaniolo, G. 1981. Histology of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri tunic: in particular, the test cells. Bolletino di zoologia, 48: 169-178